Saturday, 30 January 2010

30-01-10

考試炒了 Orz
LS 30/60
Endlish 125/200
Econ 77/100
不過中文不錯~ 75/100 currently
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岩岩全霸Death Moon lol
Easy: 初見 FLSS
Normal : 初見 HR 99.26% S
Hard: 大約20次 98% S
Insane: 大約30次 96% S
Enjoy! =]

Thursday, 21 January 2010

21/01/10 x Osu!第6話

今日係 21-01-2010 個pattern唔錯lol (*)Firms and Productin I 已經upload左... 聽講Physics notes好有用, thanks =D 話時話為左接Osu!接龍我竟然將我篇文忘記了,真係唔好意思>_< 就趁呢個機會寫下先~ lol 考試後感 1st Day: Chin reading + compo 尚可,唔難 2nd Day: End reading + compo ....WTF! 超越CE直追AL的reading卷簡直係通殺。 3nd Day: Mathematics Piece of cake. 4th Day: Chin list+Int. skill 差D遲到,不得不讚List.內容好好笑 5th Day: LS + Eng list. 1 hour 11 pages long question F.4唔理三七廿一喪寫 F.3望住隔離行ge神之右手連source都可以唔睇就喪寫……o晒 聲討LS啊!!!! 6th Day: Chem 有D fick人位,整體易 7th Day: Econ 一樣做剩小小,其他冇大問題 除了law of DMR 8th Day: Physics Easy + no exam mod Cycling~ Last Day: Chinese Oral ....orz ~成功路線~ wmfchris   四處一片荒蕪,他們的戰鬥讓方圓一百米活生生的植物都給烤焦了。此時,勝負已分。女孩對我共嗚的歌曲差點就讓我萬劫不復……163的BPM是我在學院從來都沒有遇到過,我也打出了超乎自己想像的水準。儘管有幾個滑道的手勢沒揮對,我還是平安無事地打破女孩的防守。她退後了兩步,把共嗚收起來,笑道:「看來還沒有拿到獎章的你實力還不錯呢!多多指教喔~」 deepsea The City Is At War[Peace]http://osu.ppy.sh/s/6318   「好了沒啊?」   「還沒啦!不要吵。讓姊姊好好翻譯完啦。」有東西重重的敲上了我的後腦杓。「幹麻打我頭?很痛耶。」   「當然痛啊。不痛打你幹麻?」   「你……」我想找東西反擊。四隻手卻即時的擋在中間,暫時止住了一場內戰。「不能打架!打架了,就不把翻譯給你們了。」其中兩隻手各在我們頭上敲了一下。「金Q垃好處有啥,誰說對了就給他!」   「誰知道啊。」真是的,學姊又在整人了。早知道不該教她這麼多東西的,讓她呆一點比較好。雖然說她現在還是很呆啦……   當天從灰燼裡冒出的女孩雖然毫髮無傷,還十分的漂亮,她的記憶卻已經喪失了一大半,只記得她和我從同一個學校畢業的。於是我們就叫她學姊了。不知道她是因為記憶受損呢,還是本來就這麼呆。不過也呆的很可愛啦。   更幸運的一點是,她還識得那幾張文件上面的文字。她說,裡面藏著一個重大的秘密,似乎和這對俠侶的失蹤有關,甚至有可能影響到整個世界的命運,可惜文件已經遺失了大半,不過幸好,根據現有的線索,還是有機會解開這麼秘密。於是她開始把文件翻譯給我們。   雖然知道翻譯需要時間,不過急性子的我還是等不及想知道這個大秘密,還不斷的催促學姊。也讓我腦袋吃了好幾下。還好學姊脾氣比較好,不然可能就不只腦袋遭殃了。    「開玩笑的啦!你們來看吧。」學姊的四隻手再我們的兩邊肩膀各戳了一下,我們互瞪了一眼,湊上前去看翻譯。她還偷偷的踹了我一腳。     「咦……」   看完了翻譯,我們心中的疑惑非旦沒有解決,問題反而越來越多。   唯一釐清的線索是金Q垃的秘密,也知道了這是能找到俠侶唯一的線索。不過這又給我們帶來了另一個麻煩。   「媽媽的,機城和花山在完全不同的兩個方向啊!」   不只在不同的兩個方向,還離很遠哪。但是現在時間很寶貴,慢了一天都可能是個不可挽回的錯誤。最後決定了兵分兩路,我和學姊一組往機城,另外一組人往花山,我們在火車站暫時分別。   從這裡到機城需要四個小時的車程,在車上,我想辦法跟學姊說些我聽過的故事,看能不能喚起學姊的記憶,結果卻是徒勞無功。我只好打消念頭。   機城雖然不是什麼大城,也是個不小的都市。一路上,我不斷交代學姊要小心,不要露出觸手嚇到別人,不要把搭訕的變態吃掉,不要用觸手打我的頭,不要……   「好啦,我知道啦。」   「知道就好。」我似乎碎碎唸太多了,好歹她也是個成熟的少女了。「那我們先找點東西吃吧。」   「好呀。」   半分鐘過後,我的背後傳來的玻璃破掉的聲音和女孩的哀嚎聲。唔,我似乎忘了告訴她,走路要看路。       「我真的不是故意的啦。」   「好啦,我知道。你不用再說了。唔,這傷口看起來滿痛的。」我搖著頭幫學姊清理著頭上的傷口。「鏡子應該更痛。」當然這句話我沒說出口。學姊卻直直瞪著我,難道她有讀心的能力嗎?   等等。她好像不是在瞪我?   「小心!」   兩隻觸手捲住了我的肩膀,把我從椅子上拉了起來,我還沒會意到發生什麼事情時,學姊另外兩隻觸手向我背後探了過去。「唉呀!」   我回過頭去,一個男子滿臉凶狠的瞪著我們,手上握著一柄長刀,刀尖插在學姊的一隻觸手上。學姊的兩隻觸手則緊緊的纏住了男子的脖子。   「開戰啦!」   從剛剛那男子口中和種種跡象得知,叛軍今天對機城發動攻擊,想要佔領機城作為反抗政府的基地。   學姊用兩隻觸手抓著我狂奔,另外四隻手各握著一把長刀開路。我們兩個都是第一次來到這個城市,在不知道路況的情況下,只好隨便亂衝。我唯一知道的是團長現在正在城市東邊的一座小山上修煉。於是我們向著太陽出來的方向橫衝直撞,幸運的,學姊和我都沒受到什麼大傷。   在快要離開機城時,我們發現剛剛高興的太早了。叛軍早已經控制了交通要道,在東門布下了重兵,看來一場大戰,在所難免。   「到旁邊躲好。」認識學姊以來,第一次看到她表情如此的嚴肅。我什麼都沒說,躲到了垃圾車的後面。   學姊褪下了平常的女僕裝扮,露出了裡面的馬甲。我心頭一跳,接下來的景象,卻讓我目瞪口呆。 ~失敗路線~   幾十條觸手向叛軍伸了過去,緊緊的纏住了幾個士兵的身體,也驚動了其他士兵。其中一個士兵看到學姊,先是愣了一下,然後嘿嘿冷笑幾聲,脫下了戰袍,幾百條的觸手冒了出來。   「什麼?叛軍裡也有觸手?」學姊顯然完全沒料到這種狀況,驚的愣住了好幾秒,對方的觸手趁機發動攻擊,一把短刀筆直的刺向學姊胸口,學姊要躲開時已經來不及,短刀在她的左肩畫出了一道長長的傷口。   「嗚哇哇哇!」學姊痛的大叫,並且揮動觸手反擊。但是左肩受傷,便有一半的觸手不聽使喚,馬上落居下風,   更糟糕的是,敵人心狠手辣,刺傷學姊的刀尖上似乎塗了什麼毒藥。學姊的觸手越來越沒力氣,動作也逐漸慢了下來。   「我不行了……你……快走……」學姊滿身都是鮮血,僅剩的幾隻觸手纏繞在敵人的脖子上。   「不行啊!要死也要死在一起!」我大吼,拿著我的長刀準備衝出去。   「我們……不能死……你……快去找……團長來……救我們……」學姊的聲音越來越小。「別忘了……我們的任務……」   我一咬牙,全速往東門外狂奔,忍不住回頭看了一眼。學姊就在我眼前跪倒了下去。我想辦法把剛剛的一切從腦袋裡趕走,繼續向山上狂奔。

Monday, 18 January 2010

Economics -- Production in short run and long run

Production runs Variable factors are inputs that the quantities vary when output changes. Fixed factors are inputs that the quantities don’t vary when output changes. The change of output can be classifies into temporary or persistent. In temporary increase in demand, only factors like raw materials, electricity is used more. They’re variable factors that quantities changes with output. However some factors like factory premises are fixed factors and won’t change. In a persistent increase in demand, the factory may employ more. Then all production factors have become variable factors. Short run and long run is classified to the existence of fixed factors. Short run(SR) refers to the period that contain fixed factor where long run(LR) means no fixed factors over the period. Input and output relationship in SR 1) Total product (TP) refers to the total amount of output over a time. (unit: unit/time) 2) Average product (AP) refers to the average output produced per unit of variable factor employed in the period. i.e., AP = TP / units of variable factor. 3) Marginal product (MP) is the change of total amount of output that results from adding an additional unit of variable factor in the period. MP of the nth unit of a variable factor = TP of n units – TP of (n-1) units The law of diminishing marginal returns states that when a variable factor is added continuously to a given quantity of fixed factors, the marginal return (product) will eventually decrease, ceteris paribus. MP increases since specialization formed among the variable factors, but it decreases because fixed factors per that variable factor decreases so that they do not have enough fixed factors to use. Variable cost refers to the cost of employing variable factors which changes with output. Fixed cost refers to the cost of employing fixed factors which do not change with output. Measurement of costs 1) Total cost (TC) = Total variable cost (TVC) + Total fixed cost (TFC). 2) Average cost (AC) = TC / Units of output. (unit: cost per unit) 3) Marginal cost (MC) refers to the change in total cost that results from producing an additional unit of output. i.e. MC of the nth unit of output = TC of n units – TC of (n-1) units Note that when an extra cost only comes from variable factors, therefore: MC of the nth unit of output = TVC of n units – TVC of (n-1) units Now assume that the wage of labour is unique while labour is the only variable factor. Considering MP = ΔQ/Δv.f = ΔQ/ΔL. and MC = ΔTC/ΔQ, where Q is the quantity of output and Δ refers to the change. Denote L as labour. MC = ΔTC/ΔQ = ΔTVC/ΔQ = (wage*ΔL)/ ΔQ=(wage) ΔL//ΔQ = wage*MC-1 Therefore the marginal product is inversely proportional to the marginal product. When the marginal product is high, additional units of factor can help a lot and the marginal cost is lower. In a long run, scale of production is enlarged by employing all factors in the same proportion. The result is classified into economies/diseconomies of scale. The curve of long run average cost (LRAC) is U-shaped when LRAC is at minimum; we call that scale as the optimal scale. Economies of scale refer to the advantages associated with large scale production which lowers the LRAC. Diseconomies of scale refer to the disadvantages associated with large scale production which raises the LRAC. Possible sources of internal economies of scale: 1) Technical economies – they can buy larger machines and spread the cost into larger output, while machines can be fully utilized. 2) Managerial economics – specialization among managers and attracts more professionals to work for the firms increases the productivity. 3) Financial economies – raising funds at a lower cost and borrowing at a lower interest rate. 4) Purchasing economies – larger discount when buying inputs in bulk. 5) Marketing economies – spread the ad costs over a larger output. 6) Risk diversification economies – diversify products = diversify risks 7) Research and development (R&D) economies – can afford research and development. Possible sources of external economies of scale: 1) More workers are attracted to the industry, employed and trained. Then costs of recruiting and training workers are reduced. 2) Cost of back-up, a transport and communication service is shared among the firms. 3) More firms ads their products implies more people will know that industry and this will lower the marketing costs. Possible source of internal diseconomies of scale: 1) Managerial diseconomies – complex organizational structure delay decisions, block communication and weaken coordination. 2) Financial diseconomies -- risk of lending big sum of a firm is high → interest rate ↑ 3) Purchasing diseconomies – higher demand of resources implies higher average costs. 4) Marketing diseconomies – local market may be saturated and exploring oversea markets raises the average cost. Possible source of external diseconomies of scale: 1) Excessive expansion cause a drastic increase in demand for factor inputs, then the input prices like wages will be greatly increases. 2) Increasing concentration of business activities in a certain area causes traffic congestion and raises the transportation cost.

Economics -- Factors of production II

Entrepreneurship (human resources) is the human effort provided by an entrepreneur who is a owner of business. The factor return/income is called profit. They’re responsible to organize, manage and make (all major) decisions. For example, they raise funds, decide what to produce, how to produce, price and quality of products, etc. They’re responsible for bearing all risks of production, and unlike the passive roles in production, their income are not stipulated by contract so it’s return is uncertain. Capital (producer goods) is man-made resources used by producers to help production. The factor income is called interest. They can be money or machines, etc. Note that some of them will be used up during production (e.g. fuels, money) but some of them can be used repeatedly (e.g. machines). Capital that can be used repeatedly is called fixed capital. Features of capital: 1) They can replace other factors like labour since they’re man-made. Cost can be reduced or improve the productivity. E.g., ATM instead of tellers is cheaper and faster. 2) They can be forgone for more future consumption since when resources are used to produce to purchase capital, it can’t be consumed now, but when it’s used in production, increase in capital means the increase in productivity. Then future consumption of consumer goods can be increased in return. Change in capital stock (refers to capital formation – capital depreciation) 1) Capital depreciation refers to the reduction of the value of capital caused by capital consumption (wear/tear) or capital obsolescence (out-dated) 2) Capital formation refers to the production or purchase of capital or investment. The two purpose are replace the depreciated capital to maintain productivity or to increase the production productivity in order to expand the production capacity. The resulting net increase in capital is called capital accumulation. Land refers to the natural resources used in production. They must not be processed (human effort is not involves). The factor income is called rent. E.g., oil deposits and wildland. Note that land that being processed is capital, but not land. (e.g. land created by reclamation) 1) It’s totally a gift from nature and no cost is (forgone) needed for its formation. 2) Supply of land can’t be increased artificially but can be increased by natural forces. The current situation of Hong Kong Hong Kong is well-known for its hard-working, adaptable and well-educated workforce, and the high efficiency and enterprising entrepreneurs. It’s also well-known for the excellent man-made resources such as the transportation system and communication infrastructure as an international financial centre. However Hong Kong is so small and it’s lack of natural resources. But it still has one of the best deep-water ports (Victoria Harbor) in the world.

Sunday, 17 January 2010

Osu! 第5話

deepsea 女孩瞇著眼睛,看著男子從山洞裡走了出來,耳畔傳來了柔和的聲音。   「恭喜你們通過了神的考驗。從今以後,在你們身上的任何詛咒都已經消失,也沒有什麼可以阻擋你們兩個的愛情了,現在,你們兩個可以永遠的在一起了。」   男子把女孩緊緊的擁入懷中,女孩緊緊抓著男子的肩膀。耀眼的光芒逐漸消失。   「我愛妳。」   「我也是。」   「妳比較喜歡現在的我,還是機車的我?」男子開玩笑的問著女孩。   「當然是現在的你呀,問著什麼問題啊?」女孩嘟起了嘴巴,瞪了男子一眼。男子哈哈大笑「不過……」    「不過什麼?」   「我沒有了機車,我們要怎麼下山去呀?」   「對喔……」男子顯然沒想過這個問題,不過女孩馬上有了答案。「你在讓我騎一次好了。」還沒等到男子的反應,女孩就撲到了男子的身上,緊緊的抱住男子。「走吧!」   男子苦笑。就是拿她沒辦法呀。「真是的。」嘴巴裡這樣說,心裡卻滿是甜蜜。「不只一次,我要永遠的當你的機車。」   女孩的俏臉微紅,嘟起了嘴。「真是機車本性不改。」   空無一人的山路上,「機車」載著他深愛的女孩奔馳著,天已經亮了,不知道什麼時候才能下山。   不過他知道,他和她會永遠的走下去。 =========================== wmfchris 關卡: Made of fire [Gladi's normal] http://osu.ppy.sh/b/40153   此時,燒剩了的灰發出了剌眼的白光,我不由得掩上眼睛。   閃光退去時,我慢慢睜開眼睛偷偷觀察著眼前的一切;灰燼倒是一點都沒有了,取而代之的是一個美少女,擁有著及腰的棕髮,一雙星眸妙目,還穿著女僕裝! 女孩開口道:「呼~終於出來了~在這裡被困的感覺真不好受呢。」這時,她也注到我,問到:            

  「嗯~你又是誰呀?」   好動聽的聲音!現在的重點是我認識她而不是她認識我才對!我帶口吃地回應:「我,們交個朋,朋友……好嗎?」   女孩自言自語的說道:「啊,說實話我也不知道為甚麼我會被困在這裡來的嘛……好像是在一場戰鬥中,一陣閃光讓我昏過去,然後我就被困住了……原來,火可以把詛咒破掉啊……」 我的嘴巴似乎不受控制了:「我,們交個朋,朋友……好嗎?」   女孩不耐煩地揮手道:「好吧。不過先讓我看看你的實力……」

~失敗路線~

  四處一片荒蕪,他們的戰鬥讓方圓一百米活生生的植物都給烤焦了。此時,勝負已分。我,跪在女孩的面前,痛苦地掙扎著。「哼,憑你這點實力就相認識我?還差很遠呢。」我再也撐不住,昏過去了。   醒來時,矇矓的視野中隱約可見fish哥和團長,眼中盡是責怪的眼神……這下完了……

Wednesday, 13 January 2010

Osu! 第4話

關卡:Crazy Motorcycle Chase[Normal] 連結: http://osu.ppy.sh/s/1961   「媽媽的……看不懂啊!」   好不容易得到的黑米理論,結果裡面完全是一堆看不懂的符號和文字。主角一行人沮喪無比。   「難道真的沒有辦法了嗎……」費盡千辛萬苦得到的寶物竟然沒辦法使用?只因為最後的一個叉叉讓前面的300全部白費了嗎?   「一定有辦法的,天無絕人之路……對了!在離開禁忌森林時,我被一包奇怪的東西絆倒,想說是哪個混蛋亂扔垃圾,結果是個奇怪的包裹,說不定在這時可以發揮奇特的作用呢。」   主角從行囊中取出了包裹,包裹上面大大的寫著「把我打開」四個大字。當初他怕這是誰設下的陷阱,又怕是什麼寶物或是重要的東西,而一直把包裹收著,也沒跟任何人提過。「會不會有什麼陷阱呢……算了,有陷阱就陷阱吧,大不了ESC RETRY。」一咬牙,拆開了這個神秘的包裹。   「把我打開」又是四個大字。   「什麼鬼東西啊?」一層又一層拆開,還是一樣的四個大字,最後,終於出現了點不一樣的東西了。   「哈哈哈笨蛋」   「幹!耍我啊?」主角怒氣勃發。眼見著最後的一絲希望這樣破滅了,而且還是用這樣的方式嘲笑他,主角不禁又是沮喪又是憤怒。他氣的把一堆紙揉成一團,放火燒了。   「我以後不會在相信什麼奇蹟了!」   「嘿!等等!」正當主角想著各種惡毒的字眼詛咒命運和上天時,有個聲音叫住了他。   「什麼啦?」他儘可能的不遷怒於人,聲音卻還是透露出了情緒。   「那上面……有字!」   火堆中的幾張被他當作廢紙的東西,此時竟然出現了密密麻麻的文字!   「快!滅火!」一行人趕緊把火滅掉,然而大多數的紙都已經化成了灰。只剩下一點點沒有燒完。主角從灰中撿起了剩下的紙,開始閱讀。   「10000個鍵盤的碎片,3000個死亡滑鼠的怨靈……殺遍了世間的觸手。我離我的夢想,只剩下一步了。」   年約三十的男子望著天空。他身材魁梧,偌大的手掌貼在劍柄上,這是他成名的武器之一-命運之劍。從兩年多前問世至今,沾滿了無數鮮血。多少英雄好漢在它和他的面前,也只有俯首稱臣。另一隻手輕輕的環抱著一個女孩,晚風把女孩的頭髮吹到男子的手臂上。女孩年約二十三四歲,面容俏麗,水汪汪的大眼睛直盯著男子。   「我也拿回了我最寶貴的東西。經過了三年,無數次的挑戰,無數次的失敗,我終於奪回了我最重要的東西。」   女孩的眼神閃過一絲驕傲。接著又恢復溫柔,深情款款的看著男子。「魔里莎,我贏了。現在,我離我的夢想也只剩下一步了。」   男子輕輕撫摸著女孩的秀髮。「我只差一步,就可以變成一個真正的人類了。現在,妳願意幫助我嗎?」   「當然囉!不過……」女孩眼睛一眨。「我想看你變成原來的樣子,然後帶我過去。」   「什麼嘛!不要!」男子瞪了女孩一眼。女孩嘟著嘴,臉上卻滿是笑意。「等你成功之後,我就沒有機會看到你原來的樣子了,就這最後一次嘛。」   「好吧……」男子打遍天下英雄,就是拗不過這個女孩,他無奈了笑了笑。   傍晚,空無一人的山路上,女孩騎著機車向山頂而去。   來到了山頂,皎潔的明月高高掛在空中,女孩走進山洞,來到神的面前,獻上祭品。夜很靜,女孩聽著自己的心跳聲越跳越快。緊握的拳頭輕輕顫抖著。   這一刻終於到來了,盼了好幾久,怎麼能叫她不緊張,又怎麼能叫她不興奮呢?   幾年的辛苦,終於要開花結果了,只差這最後一步。女孩把男子交代給她的訊息反覆默唸了幾遍,確定不會唸錯之後,來到了神的面前。開始大聲的唸出來。這是讓男子轉變為人的最後儀式。   山洞裡傳出了耀眼的光芒,把黑夜照的有如白晝。 ~Failure~ 突然,山洞裡傳來了淒厲的吼聲。接著一條一條的觸手從山洞裡冒了出來。女孩大驚失色,想要跑,卻被眼前的一切嚇的跑都跑不動了。   「還我命來……」無數的鍵盤,滑鼠,觸手從山洞裡飛了出來。斷掉的觸手,少了好幾個按鍵的鍵盤,還有線斷成兩截的G1滑鼠,「血債血償……」   「啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊啊!」女孩閉上眼睛,跪了下來。「這不是我的錯啊,你去找我們家的兔子!」滑鼠卻用剩下的線捲住了女孩的手,血淋淋的觸手也包圍住了女孩。女孩趕緊拔腿就跑。奇怪,她已經再三確認了咒文沒有問題,怎麼還會出錯?   「幹!都是機車鬼害的!他一定是打錯字了啦!」 ==================== 「這是……」主角一行人看完,想到的都是同一件事。這故事沒有人聽過,不過一看就知道,它的主角是osu!史上的兩位著名的英雄俠侶。這對俠侶曾經在osu!的世界闖蕩,闖出了一番轟轟烈烈的事業後,突然在江湖上消失。   然而大家都不知道的是,主角心中受到的震撼遠遠超過其他人。因為在故事的最後,有幾張圖畫繪出了這兩人的樣貌和兩人身上的武器飾品。他一眼就認出了女孩無名指上的金SS戒指。這個戒指,從他對這個世界有了印象時,就一直戴在他的身上,更曾經幾次把他從死亡的邊緣拉了回來。他卻從來不知道這戒指的來歷。   「那些紙上一定有著重大的秘密!」他從灰中找出了剩下的紙,剩下的紙都是男子和少女的圖畫,翻到了最後一張,上面畫滿的歪七扭八的鬼畫符和一個形狀奇怪的盒子,下面寫著兩行小字。   「osu摻了金Q垃,SS日產一千八。」

Monday, 11 January 2010

Osu 第3話

歡樂的場景引來了小雨,看到主角好萌,硬是加入了主角的隊伍 這才發現剛跟黑米買到的都是劣質品,兩人決定找具由強烈正義感的高等Beater-yoki來助陣,而yoki還找來了他頂級Mapper哥哥darri,這下聲勢浩大,即使是傳說中的純鼠流高手黑米也休想輕易地過這關!! =======================以上是短接 xipan 事後我跟小雨發現了商人黑米的真實面目。於是我們去找他討回公道。 在yoki跟darri哥哥的幫助下(darri:“群毆,我們一群打人一個。單挑,你一個單挑我一群。”黑米:“……”)我們得以順利的解決了此事。 就在我們跟yoki與darri告別後,得興而歸的路上。 “啊啊啊啊啊啊啊!”一陣劇烈的頭痛。 眼前,有什麼 不,是眼前的一切,破碎了 所及的街道,找不到另外的行人。 不 更詭異的是,仿佛雙目染上了鮮血 所有的一切,變得一片猩紅。 “這就是世界的真實。勇者啊,想要拯救世界,就必須打穿所有的map。否則,將無法......回到日常。”沉重的,卻又無比動人的女聲在耳邊響起。 “你是誰?這裡是什麼地方。”我發現有太多太多想要問的話,可是劇烈的頭痛讓我沒有多余的力氣去思考。 “.....勇者啊,我是被囚困在此處的精靈。我不知道你們為什麼會在這裡,但是...你們所見的一切,和我所說的,全部都是真實。” “不 不,不可能的,打穿所有map,那是不可能的啊。”小雨痛苦的蹲下去。“難道,我們就將永遠被困於此?!” ......我再也沒有問出什麼,心頭,縈繞著深深的絕望... “哼!” 不知從何處傳來的一聲冷哼,猶如驚雷,重重的擊在我的心靈。 而此時一直放在懷裡的金蘋果發出耀眼的光芒。 “什麼!?”好聽的女聲發出詫異的驚呼。 原來,金蘋果裡沉睡著一個勇者。 像是漫不經心般,他抬起頭;“哦~固有結界-無限牢獄,沒想到,你還真有兩手,勾起我的興趣了。”像是看著誰,他從虛空中抽出一把劍。 一閃! 街道消失了。世界恢復了正常的顏色,僅僅如此而已,仿佛從一個夢境掉落到另一個夢境般。我們的眼前,出現了另一個男子。他身後滾動著的巨大齒輪,哐哐哐哐哐,每一下都仿佛擊中了我的心靈。 貧瘠的荒土,沒有盡頭般,這裡就像一個戰場,地上到處插滿了劍。 忽然之間發生的太多事,叫我無法適應,我甚至懷疑,這是不是在做夢?眼前的一切太過虛幻而身體的感觸卻又如此真實。 “嗯~沒想到,竟然還有一個人,真是失算了。不過,你該不會以為,固有結界就單單這麼一個精神幻界吧。想要破壞我的無限牢獄,你們還早一百年!”男子語畢忽然向我們衝來。 “喔?那還真叫人期待呢。”金發男子像我們看來“喂,一起合作吧,好久不動了,有些手生了。” “啊?哦 好 好的。”我好不容易理解了眼前所發生的一切,慌忙的投入狀態。 “說謊者,將受到懲罰!”神秘勇者加入死鬥!…… 原來,這一切都是不甘失敗的黑米所發動的固有結界裡面,他趁我們得興而歸放松戒備時設下陷阱。將我跟小雨困於精神幻界,制造種種假像,使我們陷入深深的絕望,好一舉擊敗我們。 隨著 固有糾結-無限牢獄 的崩壞宣告著黑米的敗北。“啊 啊~”神秘勇者緊繃的神情放松下來。躺在地上,大口大口的喘氣。我拖著疲憊的身軀,倒在一邊“喂…你,很強啊。” “哼,很強嗎。拼盡了全力,現在這副身子,將有很長一段時間都不會恢復吧。”他好像滿不在乎的說道。 “對了…”我剛吐出口的話,被打斷了 “我決定加入你們,我叫蘋果。還有…謝謝你剛才替我擋了那一下。”他扭過頭去。 我沒有看到他的表情,邀請的言語也沒有必要再說。我想,大概 他是應該是一個外冷內熱的人吧。

Sunday, 10 January 2010

Metals

Metals The most abundant elements in the earth crust is O and Se while the most abundant metals are Al and Fe. Extraction method Exist as free element – Physical separation When the metals are extremely unreactive, it exists as free element. A mechanical separation is processed to separate metals (as free element) from rocks and sands. Water flows through the mixture, while the heavier metals sinks, lighter rocks and sands are washed away. 1) Gold Characteristic: Attractive colour resists corrosion, extremely malleable and ductile Use: Jewellery and coins 2) Silver It can exist in oxide form (Argentite) or free element. 2Ag2O→4Ag+O2 under heating. Characteristic: Attractive colour, resists corrosion, malleable, ductile and best conductor of electricity. Use: Jewellery and coins Heating alone 3) Mercury – (Cinnabar) 2HgO→2Hg+O2 by heating alone. (HgS+O2→Mg+SO2) It’s toxic, and used to make thermometer. Carbon reduction 4) Copper – (Copper pyrite CuFeS2) It becomes different oxides and sulphide when it’s exposed in air. CuS+O2→Cu+SO2 Characteristic: very good conductor of heat and electricity, very malleable and ductile, strong, non-poisonous and resists corrosion. Use: Electric wires and cooking utensils. 5) Lead – (Galena PbS) (toxic) (Roasting in air) 2PbS+3O2→2PbO+2SO2, 2PbO+C→2Pb+CO2 6) Iron – (Haematite Fe2O3 Iron(III) oxide) It’s extracted in a blast furnace. Limestone, coke, limestone are used. Chain of reaction: (1) C+O2→CO2 (2)CaCO3→CaO+CO2 (3)C+CO2→2CO (4)3CO+Fe2O3→2Fe+3CO2 Carbon monoxide is very reactive such that it have to be produced inside the blast furnace. It’s used to take away the oxygen in the iron ore quickly. Iron(II) sulphide: 4FeS+7O2→2Fe2O3+4O2, 2Fe2O3+3C→4Fe+3CO2 Characteristic: Strong, malleable, ductile and cheap (abundant) Use: Bridges, ships and gratings. 7) Zinc – (Zinc blende ZnS) Roast in air: 2ZnS+3O2→2ZnO+2SO2, 2ZnO+C→2Zn+CO2 Electrolysis of molten ore The ore is molten and put in a machine which positive graphite electrodes is placed up to attract the oxygen. The negative graphite electrode is placed down to attract the molten ore. 8) Aluminium – Bauxite Characteristic: light but strong, resists corrosion (oxide protection) Use: aeroplanes and window frames 9) Magnesium – Magnesite 10) Sodium is from rock salt (NaCl) 11) Potassium – Carnallite Other important metals and their uses 12) Tin as coatings of other metals since it’s malleable, non-poisonous, resists corrosion and offers a clean adhesive surface for paints. 13) Titanium is used to make supersonic aircraft and space vehicles; it’s also used for too implants and replacement hip joints since it’s very light and strong, having a high M.P., resist corrosion, can be easily shaped and biocompatible (non-poisonous and not rejected by the body) 14) Tungsten is used to make light bulb filaments for the high M.P. which emits white light when it’s still at solid state. The ease of extraction (reactivity) affects the year of discovery. Currently the resource of iron is the most abundant and lasting among metals. But since metals are non-renewable, limited with increasing demand, we should conserve them. -Extraction of ores, uses lots of water, with emitting lots of SO2 and CO2 -The 4Rs: reduce, reuse, recycle and replace. -Recycling of metals refers to melting down used and scrap metals, and use them again. Recycling metals saves more than a half of energy (Al 95%) while comparing to extracting them. The benefits include less metal resources and fuel can be reduced. Also less air pollutants are emitted. The public awareness of conservation can be raised. However, there’re some problems in recycling, including the difficulties to collect the waste metal, cost of transporting, cost of melting and purifying, as well as disposing waste in the process. They’re not cheap. Recycling industry is still seeking improvements. Reactivity of metals refers to the note. It's ready for now)

Friday, 8 January 2010

Osu! 第二話

經過一番苦戰,終於擊敗了果果妖取得了頭上的金頻果!!『恭喜你順利完成試煉!你手上這顆金頻果是你學會基本節奏控制能力的最好證明,朝向你的目標前進吧!』團長露出不曾見過的笑容,深深讓我覺得他之前是愛之深責之切,原來他是很關心學生的。 在得到團長的認同成為一個正式的Beater後,我決定離開節奏之都,漫遊廣大的osu世界,隨著節奏的引領去尋找我的目標與命運。 ========================== Himydanny 在上一次戰鬥中獲得了[金幣x15],消耗了[手指繃帶x2]。 返回學院,向商人NPC(himydanny)購買了[劣質鼠標穩定器x1] [破損的鼠標墊x1] 共花費[金幣x10] [劣質鼠標穩定器] 使你的鼠標變得穩定,只能附用於劣質鼠標。 [破損的鼠標墊] 使你的鼠標可以光滑的移動,只能附用於劣質鼠標。 團長 主角以為用很低的代價一堆買到了好裝備(?),於是高興得跟善良商人黑米跳舞 關卡名稱:colourful[danciing with 黑米!] 關卡連結: http://osu.ppy.sh/s/5651 ~失敗~ 發現黑米賣的是便宜貨,用一用就壞了難怪會fail O___Q主角決定去跟收了那麼多金幣的黑米討個公道…… 這次很短,不是我問題。

Thursday, 7 January 2010

Osu! <第1話> Beater

不知道Osu!的話,你可以將它當成像太鼓的節奏遊戲,其實是應援團DS的PC版。 格式: 關卡名稱(歌曲+難度,來源: Osu!) <失敗後>的發展(同時釋出) <成功後>的發展(在下一次更新釋出) Osu! story mode 所釋出故事,主要作者: Haruhiteamsos, xipan, deepsea, wmfchris 第一話 Beater by Haruhiteamsos 這是一個滑鼠與節拍的世界 世間萬物都有其內心的震盪 只要打擊出感動一切的節奏 節拍將能創造出無限的可能性… 萬里無雲,艷陽高照。今天是決定是否能從osu學院離開的重大日子,只要我通過主考官的考驗,就能成為獨當一面的Beater了!屆時,我將能藉由這隻滑鼠去闖蕩世界,慢慢增強自己的實力,在這個廣大的世界尋找自己的理想。 儘管我還沒有想到在成為Beater後要做什麼,但我知道當我沉浸在音樂之中時,我能聽見萬物生命最深層的一股震盪—那是一種穩定的波動,只要隨著波動與之起舞,對方也將會給我答覆,我的內心也因此得到了一種滿足,這種用言語無法解釋的感動或許是osu世界最深處魔力的流出,也是把我推向Beater之路的原因,我相信這條路上將會有我所值得珍重的事物出現。 想著想著不知不覺已經來到了學院前的廣場,一來到現場那種面對大考的衝擊立刻使我的心跳高達110BPM,跳動中帶有對未來的期盼與緊張…好! 冷靜下來,如果連自己心中的震盪都無法掌握,那要怎麼激起萬物的漣漪。整理好情緒後,我勇敢地朝向試煉場前進。 『很好!各位都準時抵達了!看來我不用再開間房間處罰遲到者了!遲到的人是不可能打出準確的節拍的!!』眼前出現的是主考官-團長,傳聞中他是個調教學生不扎眼的惡劣教官,總是以教學之言行虐待之實。不妙!沒想到是由他監考,看來這次試煉將會十分困難。 『呵呵~大家不用太緊張,只要發揮平常所學,我相信大家一定能克服難關的,如果有什麼萬一我也會保障大家的安全。』坐在團長背後的是來觀看我們最後一場試煉的fish哥,雖然他與學生們以兄弟相稱,但事實上他是這所學校的校長,同時也是osu世界中最強的Beater之一,除了課堂與考試之外都與我們平起平坐相處,擁有如此強大的力量卻又放得下身段,這鼓氣量是贏得全世界Beater敬重的主因。 好!有了fish哥這一席話,我頓時覺得內心充滿了自信! 『今天的考試內容很簡單,你們要各自進入校園後面的禁忌森林與”果果妖”戰鬥!”果果妖”身上結滿各種有毒的果實,唯有頭上長那顆金蘋果是沒有毒的,因為果果妖面對敵人性情兇殘,所以不制服他是無法取得的。各位!打倒果果妖、帶回金蘋果,就是你們今天的任務!』說完,所有考生依照團長指示的方向,個別進入了禁忌森林…… 禁忌森林中的樹木異常茂密,陽光完全透不進來,明明是正午卻感覺漫步在深夜的叢林中,時間感與方向感隨著腳步漸漸混亂,一邊在經過的路上留些藍線當記號,一邊用滑鼠點擊Lemon Tree[Easy]的節拍請樹木指引方向緩緩地前進… 走了一兩個小時後發現身邊的樹木病的病、枯的枯,周圍的景色也越來越明亮,看來果果妖的棲息地已經不遠了!我小心翼翼地前進,當走到樹木再也遮不住藍天的時候,映入眼簾的是一個身上長滿紫色果實的巨大妖怪,結實累累的身體唯有頭上長的那顆果實閃耀著金光。 確定了!那就是果果妖!從手袖中抽出滑鼠擺出戰鬥姿勢,與果果妖的戰鬥就此開打!激烈的攻防中成功與果果妖的內心共鳴產生了聯結……BPM140、攻略難易度:Normal,內心深處的黑暗迴響著Bad apple的旋律~好!我這就隨著攻擊節奏閃避毒果實攻擊想辦法找破綻追擊! 關卡:Bad Apple[Normal] 連結: http://osu.ppy.sh/s/6252 ~失敗路線~ 疑?我怎麼躺病床上了?原來剛在戰鬥中不幸被果果妖的毒果攻擊擊中臉部,吃到爛蘋果身中劇毒頻臨死亡。好在fish哥及時現身拔出傳說中的專用鍵盤施展高等節奏技Nice Boat[JAMES DIFFICULTY!!] 讓果果妖瞬間化成灰燼,並用Rise Again[Hard]的天籟之聲把我從死亡邊緣拉回來送醫,才保住一條小命。不過可能要面臨重考的命運了…… 我想我只是不小心戰敗,或許剛那場戰鬥打得不錯,團長有機會讓我過關?『痊癒等著重修吧!!!]團長板著臉孔對著躺在病床上的我這麼說』 恩…確定要重修了orz ====================== 希望每天更新一次,順道宣傳Osu! :3 後面我有份作的 lol 順帶一提本人的(垃圾Osu!往績): 前任taiko World #1, 現任Taiko, CTB HK #1,僅此而已。

Tuesday, 5 January 2010

Chemistry notes - Planet Earth

Examples of resources in the Earth: coal, natural gas, metals, NaCl and limestone… Matters are something that has mass. Mixtures – 2+ pure substances which haven’t joint chemically Pure substances: Elements: Can’t be broken into anything simpler by chemical methods. Compound: Composed of 2+ elements joined chemically together. Some examples of compounds and their uses: Ammonia ( NH3) – glass cleanser, fertilizer Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3) – calcium supplement tablets Sodium hydroxide ( NaOH) : drain cleanser Mixture VS compound: Mixed together in any proportion. VS In a fixed ratio. No chemical change when it’s formed VS Energy is usually released when forming the compound (chemical change occurred) Similar properties with the original substances that made up the mixture VS Can have very different chemical properties then the elements that it contains Don’t have a sharp BP/MP (it varies) VS Have a definite/sharp/unique MP/BP Can be separated by physical method VS Have to be separated through chemical method. (e.g. electrolysis) Method of separation 1) Decantation Let the residue sinks in the bottom of the beak and pour the decant away through the glass rod. It’s suitable for separating insoluble liquid from a liquid. 2) Filtration Pour the mixture into a filter funnel with filter paper through the glass rod. Residue is in the beaker underneath and the filtrate left in the filter paper. It’s suitable for separating insoluble liquid from a liquid. (e.g. separate sand from sea water) 3) Evaporation. Heat the mixture in a evaporating dish by Bunsen flame. When solution is evaporated, solid remains. It’s used to separate dissolved solid from a solution. (e.g. NaCl from Sea Water) 4) Crystallization Method I: Heat the mixture, some solvent boils away, but hot solution can hold more solute. Cool it down and the solution can’t hold such solute, crystal formed. Method II: Pour the mixture in a beaker with cover, let the solvent evaporate under room temperature, it will over-saturated and from crystals. It’s used to separate dissolved solid from a solution. (e.g. from Water) 5) Distillation (evaporation + crystallization) Evaporate the solution in a distillation flask, a tube with condenser receives the solution vapour and turn it into liquid, and collected by the conical flask. It’s suitable to separate dissolved solid from a solution. 6) Fractional distillation Remove impurities such as dust, water vapour and ; compress the air in a high pressure (by the Ideal Gas Law it’ll get hotter), then it’s cooled in a cool chamber (by water), it’s expanded (by IGL it’s cooler). Repeated this step until the air is liquefied. Pump the air into the fractioning column, the temperature is slowly increased. The B.P. of , and are , and respectively, therefore is collected in the bottom of the tower, followed and . It’s suitable to separate two miscible liquids. 7) Sublimation Put the mixture in a beaker covered by a evaporating dish. Heat the beaker until it sublimes. Those sublimed gas will become solid again in the bottom of the dish. It’s suitable to separate mixture of two solids which one of them can sublime. Physical properties are something that can be measured without changing the chemical composition of the substance. No new substances are formed during physical change. Chemical properties describe the ability of a substance to form new substances. One or more new substances is formed in chemical change. In another way, energy is absorbed or released. Test for oxygen: (glowing splint test) Oxygen relights glowing splint. Test for hydrogen: (burning splint test) Hydrogen gives a “pop” sound when burning. Test for water: Water turns dry cobalt(II) chloride paper from blue to pink. Test for some metals (flame test): If it’s not clean, dip it into conc. solution, heat it until no characteristic flame is shown. Dip the clean wire into (fresh) conc. solution (or dip it into conc. solution, heat it until no characteristic flame is shown.), then dip it into the solid sample power and heat it. 1) Sodium ion gives golden yellow flame. 2) Calcium ion gives brick-red flame. 3) Potassium ion gives lilac flame. 4) Copper ion gives bluish green flame. Test for chloride: add (dilute) nitric acid followed by silver nitrate solution, gives white ppt (participate). Four layers of Earth’s atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere. Composition of atmosphere – 78% of , 21% of , 0.9% of noble gases, 0.03% of , variant amount of and some other gases. Sea covers over 70% surface area of the Earth. It dissolved different salts. Most salts are brought by rivers. Composition of sea salt (3.5% of the sea water): about 68% of , 15% of , 11% of , 3% of and some other salt. A solution forms when a substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent). Dilute solution contains a very small amount of solute in given amount of solution. When solute increase, it becomes concentrated, and finally saturated. Saturated solution means it can’t dissolve anymore solute in a given temperature. Electrolysis of water 2H2O -> 2H2 + O2 sea water -> Hydrogen + Chloride + Sodium Hydroxide Particle theory of matter – all substances are made up by very small particles. Limestone – calcium carbonate ( CaCO3) 1) Heat and limewater(calcium hydroxide) Heating calcium carbonate gives calcium oxide (quick lime) and carbon dioxide: CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2 Adding water to calcium oxide gives lime water (slaked lime in solution): CaO+H2O -> Ca(OH)2 Test for carbon dioxide: turns lime water from colourless to milky: Ca(OH)2+H2O -> CaCO3 + H2O Excess carbon dioxide makes it becomes colourless again: CaCO3+H2O+CO2->Ca(HCO3)2 2) Acid Adding (dilute) hydrochloric acid gives calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide: CaCO3+2HCl->CaCl2+H2O+CO2 Use of limestone 1) Crushed limestone (CaCO3) – extraction of iron; construction material for road and buildings. 2) Powered limestone (CaCO3, grinded) – neutralize acidity of soil and sulphur dioxide in flue gas of power stations; making glass. 3) Quicklime (CaO) – making steel with Fe, neutralize acidity in soil; drying agent in industry. 4) Slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) – neutralize acidity in soil and lake affected by acid rain. 5) Cement (limestone heating with shale) – ingredients of concrete. Formation of limestone cave Solid rock broke down and changed into other materials by weathering, its surface is wearied away while the movement of products of weathering that changed their location is called erosion. Rainfalls becomes carbonic acid with carbon dioxide in air (H2O+CO2→H2CO3) (Note that the reaction can occur the inverse direction here) while carbonic acid dissolves the underground limestone deposits to form calcium hydrogencarbonate: CaCO3+H2CO3→Ca(HCO3)2 (Ca(HCO3)2 is the main cause of hard water.) The underground limestone is dissolved in this way over millions of years to form underground holes called limestone caves. Formation of limestone CaCO3 exists naturally in 3 forms: chalk, limestone and marble, depends on their hardness. When sea animals die, their skeletons and shells (mainly contains CaCO3) sink into the mud at the bottom of the oceans. After many years layers built up and pressure from top layers changes the bottom layers to chalk. Earth movements such as earthquake may lift the layer to Earth’s surface. They changes to limestone and marble under. higher pressure and heat Sorry for the chemical equation. >_>

Sunday, 3 January 2010

Factors of production - Labour

Factors of production Labour (human resources) refers to the human effort both in mental and physical. The factor income/return of labour is called wage, to compensate labours’ production efforts Quantity supplied of labour is in terms of working hours, so we have: Quantity supplied of labour = number of workers x average working hours. Labour supply describes quantities supplied of labour in different wage rate. In Hong Kong, the size of labour force is the part of population aged 15 or above which is willing and available to work for wages. Size and working hours of the labour can be affected in many factors, such as migration, age distribution, holidays, maximum working hours, etc. (Average) labour productivity measures average output per working hour per labour: Labour productivity = total output / (no. of working hrs)(no. of workers) It can be affected by health of workers, education and training (enhance intelligence of workers in training and develop their skills), mechanization and technological level, working environment, management (which affect their morale) and incentive to work. Mobility is a signal for efficient use of a factor of production. 1) Occupational mobility -- willingness and ease of a factor changes its occupation. Factors affecting occupational mobility: i) Retraining programmes – help workers to acquire essential skills for new jobs so that occupational mobility increases. ii) Market obstacles – labour unions and professional associations may set demanding entrance requirement to take up certain occupations -- decrease the occupational mobility. iii) Remuneration and working conditions – worse condition raises the incentive to change the job, and the occupational mobility increases. iv) Recruitment magazines, websites and employment agencies provide information about the availability of different job and assist workers to find new jobs. As a result, occupational mobility increases 2) Geographical mobility -- willingness and ease of a factor changes their living place. Factors affecting geographical mobility: i) Immigration and emigration policies limit their geographical mobility. For example, domestic worker can’t be imported from mainland. ii) Economic, political and social conditions change labour forces’ preference to settle in other areas and affect the geographical mobility. iii) Transport network and transport cost – well network Increase the geographical mobility but it’s reduced by high transportation cost in Hong Kong. The Transport Support Scheme introduced by the government in 2007 has raised the geographical mobility. iv) Market information enhances the geographical mobility of workers. Methods of payment to labour: 1) Piece rate (paid according to their output/contribution to production), it’s usually used in industries where workers’ contribution and be easily measured both in quality and quantity. To employees: Hard-working/laziness directly affect his paid. To employers: Productivity raises since workers become more hard-working, and it reduces the need for supervision against shirking. But it’s hard to measure workers’ contribution sometimes; also, quality and quantity may not be held at the same time. Example: Clothing industry, etc. 2) Time rate (paid according to their working hours), it’s usually used when the contribution is hardly measured or a high product quality is required. To employers: They can have more stable income, but they can’t raise their wage significantly even if they work harder. To employees: They don’t need to calculate worker’s contribution and administrative fee is reduced, also workers will have more time to aim on the quality of the product. But workers may shirk as the have a stable income so that more supervision is needed and raise the administration fee. Example: Sales and lifeguards. 3) Profit sharing scheme – a portion of the profit is distributed to workers. It’s used among supervisors and managers which is decisive to the profit. To employees: They may want to work harder for higher income, but they bear risk at the same time. To employers: It raises workers’ loyalty and shifts part of the business risk to the workers. But it’s hard to calculate the portion of sharing and free rider (shirkers) may appear. Sometimes the workers don’t want to bear risks. This may reduce their loyalty. Note that basic salary (time rate) + commission (piece rate) is not profit sharing. 4) Tips refer to the gift of money paid by customers to reward workers who provide direct services to them. It’s used for workers whose directly provide services to customers. To employees: Working performance directly affect their income. To employers: Supervision can be reduced; lower basic salary can be paid, tips instead, this shifts the business risk. Workers’ incentive to work increases, but they may not want to bear risk if there’s no basic salary. Example: waiter (time rate + tips), street artists (pure tips)

Production and division of labours

Production and Division of labour Production is the process that changes resources to goods or services. The final objective of production is to satisfy wants. Classification of production: 1) Physical form: goods (tangible) or services (intangible). 2) Producer (capital) goods (bought by producers for production) and consumer goods (to satisfy wants). 3) Private goods or public goods refers to their degree of rivalry and excludability in consumption. Types of production: 1) Primary production: activity that extracts or directly uses the natural resources. 2) Secondary production: activity that turns raw materials into (semi-) finished products. 3) Tertiary production: activity which provide services. The three type of production is interdependent. Primary and secondary producers outputs producers good to other industry while tertiary producers provides services to the other industry. Primary and secondary producers provides consumer good to household (consumer) while tertiary producers provides services to the household. Production provides employment opportunities for resources so that they can earn income and spend on consumption. Also production provides goods and services for consumption or further production. Contribution of different types of production can be shown by the % contribution to total employment and total value of production. Division (specialization) of labour 1) Simple division of labour refers to a worker specializes in producing a particular good. 2) Complex division of labour refers to a worker specializes in a particular production stages in a particular role in teamwork. 3) Regional division of labour refers to a locality specializes to produce a particular good or production stage of a good. (Locality: district/city/province/country/group of countries, etc.) Advantages of division of labour: 1) Employers can assign different workers on different workers depending on his talents, and more products can be produced. Therefore workers can be more productive and productivity is raised. 2) Workers specialize in a particular stage and do the same job repeatedly, then they’ll become more skillful on that production stage and more productive at it. 3) Since workers concentrate only on a small part of work, training time can be saved for production. 4) When workers concentrate on a particular part of job, they need not move around for different production stages and saved time for production. 5) Specialization implies that each worker only needs a few tools for each worker, but not a full set of tools for every worker to produce the whole product by himself. Therefore fewer capital goods are needed. Money (capital) can be saved. 6) If whole set of tools is given to every worker, when a worker is concentrate on a production stage, the remaining tools are idle and scarce tools are wasted. With specialization, tools can be used all the time by the most productive workers, and then capital goods can be used efficiently. 7) Production is broken into simple tasks during specialization, and machines for simple tasks are easier to be designed, and supply of machines increases. Therefore mechanization is reduced, induces technological advancement and improves productivity. 8) When productivity increases, more time is available for leisure and designing new products. As a result, people enjoy larger volume and greater variety of goods for consumption and raises living standards. Disadvantage of division of labour: 1) Works become boring 2) Workers may not realize their contribution and loss satisfaction. 3) Over-independent on different stages: Disruption in one hinders the others. For example, a strike of wharf hinders the transportation of many industries which import raw materials. 4) Workers only learn a particular skill only and do not know other production skills. 5) Greater risk of unemployment if the worker only knows a few skill. 6) Products are standardized under mass production and reduce consumers’ choice and satisfaction. Factors limiting the use of division of labour: 1) When the market size of a product is small, the extent of division of labour is limited (small scale/no division of labour) since small amount of labour and outputs are required only. 2) Nature of products: mass production is not suitable for those required individual creativity. 3) Trade barriers and quotas reduce volume of trade (demand), then scale of division of labour is restricted.

Ch.8 Forms of ownership

I'm not going to bold key words since i)Almost all words is key words here; ii)Bolding kills me, meh. Please wait for the .doc file (Maybe pdf lol) for chapter 8-11. 1) Public ownership It includes two types of ownerships: government departments and public corporations. It refers to the ownership of government or its agencies with the right of possess, control, use and dispose of property. Government departments are the government organizations owned, managed and financed by the government. It provides public services to society by a low price. Examples include Fire Services Dept. and Water Supplies Dept.. Public corporations is the firms incorporated by statute, owned by the government but financially independent of the government, and the government appoints a board of directors to manage it. They provide specific public services according to commercial principals. Examples include the Airport Authority and the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks. 2) Private ownership There’re five types of private ownership. The two with unlimited liability is called sole proprietorship and partnership. The three with limited liability is called private limited company, public limited company and listed company. (We denote its short form by SP, P, Pr, Pu and L for the five types of companies here.) Difference between owners with limited and unlimited liability: 1) Limited (unlimited) liability --(no) separate legal existence from the owners, the (owners) company are fully responsible for the debts and obligations of their business. Shareholders’ loss is confined to their investment in limited company. 2) Unlimited liability also means the owners own properties, make contracts and engage in lawsuits by themselves, not the company. Limited liability gives separate legal status to the company. Other features of company: 1) Number of owners: SP: 1 P: 2 or more Pr: 1-50 Pu/L: unlimited 2) Simple and inexpensive set-up procedures for SP/P – register with Business Registration Office of the Inland Revenue Dept. and obtain a Business Registration Certificate. But for limited companies, they have to register with the Companies Registry to obtain a Certificate of Incorporation and pay a capital fee. 3) Companies with unlimited liability have limited source of capital while limited companies have wider source of capitals since they can issue shares. 4) Owners of company of SP and P has the right to possess, use, earn income from and transfer properties related to his business, Every partner makes decisions on behalf of the firm even without the consent of other partners by legally bindings. Partners bear collective responsibility and have higher risk than SP. 5) SP and P usually manage their business themselves. With more partners, they can have a wider scope of specialization in management. For limited companies, management and owners (shareholders) are separated usually. 6) As SP and P can keep all of the profits, they have a stronger incentive to improve efficiency (maximize profits). But for managers in limited companies, they won’t earn much more even they raised the profit; so they have a weaker incentive to improve the efficiency. 7) Consultations among partners gives them a better (prudent and feasible) decisions than SP. But that will decrease their flexibility. Limited companies do more consults before they make decisions; therefore they have even lower flexibility. 8) Since owners manage their business in SP and P, they can establish close relations with employees and customers. It enhances employees’ morale and customers’ loyalty. But for limited companies, since owners don’t involve in the management, owners’ relationship with employees and customers become more distant. 9) Only Pu and L is required to disclose the financial account to public. 10) SP can transfer his business freely. Partners can transfer his ownership after the consent of other partners. Shareholders in Pr ask board director’s approval before he transfer his ownership. Shares can be transferred without restriction for Pu/L. 11) SP/P will end when there’s an admission, withdrawal, bankruptcy or death of any owners. Limited company ends only when it’s liquidated. 12) In Hong Kong, SP/P have a lower profit tax rate than limited companies. While limited companies have a higher profit tax rate. Other differences between private and public limited company: 1) Pr can’t invite public subscription for its shares while Pu can. 2) Pu is also a listed company when the transactions of the shares of that company are conducted in stock exchange. We form a sole proprietorship when we have a small amount of capital and limited specialist skills; partnerships formed when each partners trusts each others, they may have different specialist skills so that they can share their expertise and share the cost of equipment. For SP/P, they can obtain capital through retained profits, owners’ savings and borrowings. For limited company, they can also issue shares and debentures and borrowing from banks. A share or stock is the certificate of ownership (owners) which enables the shareholder to share the profit (dividends) refer to the company’s profit and its dividend policy. A bond or debenture is the certificate of debt (creditors) which enables the bond holder to earn interest until redemption or the maturity date. They can a fixed interest. Features: 1) Shareholders may not receive dividends depending on the profit and dividend policy. 2) Shares have no maturity dates while bonds have. Priority of payment upon liquidation: secured creditors, liquidators, government and employees, unsecured creditors (bond holders) and shareholders.

Saturday, 2 January 2010

02-01, 20 10

Happy Twenty Ten >w< 零九年隨著時代廣場的倒數、維港兩岸的倒數、全世界的倒數而結束。 年、只是一個時間的量化。 年是個純量,因為它只有一個方向,便是向前走。 2009絕對是過得最快的一年。 一月的年中考和Miss Chung的加分疑雲; 二月的情人節; 三月的osu!復出; 四月....嗯,我認識了雪雯^^ 五月的生日加上豬流感大變天; 六月難忘的終年試(歷史x數學!); 七月告別初中生活,還有書展和電玩展: 八月太鼓拿下world #1,然後又重設了: 九月開學: 十月的離奇洗腦講座: 十一月再拿下world #1: 十二月~我沒有膽量約妳出來 >_< 一月,新的開始。 我還沒有溫過書...你看我blog空空如也的筆記就知道了。 我現在考慮把眾多筆記分類,將版面縮短一點,又或者將它外置,那大家用起來會比較方便。 對東方比較有愛的、對混音有愛的應該聽過Okkusenman (千億萬之思念)和Cirno's Advanced Maths Class兩曲,說的都是同一主題,就是時間的不可逆轉性。 主人公長大後進入社會,小時候的夢想已經灰飛煙滅,他們的希望是回到小時候…… 「孩童只盼望歡樂,大人只知道期望」 小孩子的童真是「可愛」,難聽點叫「天真」;大人的童真叫「返老還童」,難聽的叫「不識大體」。 小孩的世界,看到的是歡樂;大人看到的是錢,沒有錢一切免談。 可是小孩長大要有能力掙錢,就要多參加課外活動,多讀書;HKCEE三十分、HKAL搶火箭、大學幾個學位,順手拿下碩士研究生之類的,方可成名。 他們長大後,卻會自怨自艾,位高,壓力也大。到最後他們想到的就是孩童的時光。他們將那些時間都放了在讀書,沒有歡樂的記憶。 小孩盼望歡樂,長大後找女朋友組織幸福家庭,「從此,王子和公主就快快樂樂地活下去了」。 大人盼望金錢,每天勞碌後終會將自己的思緒指向過去,懷勉自己的過去。 現在,沒有人可以期望穿穿下膠花變左李嘉誠,在一個知識型社會裡,沒有知識的人就很難受到優待。 Econ教我們Human have unlimited wants,所以Balance work and play是廢話,不可能的。你今日不認同,終有一天他也會明白…… 有些事情,是非黑白早已模糊,我們只能二擇其一。 好了,廢話講完,溫書去。二選其一,我選學業,要後悔到時才後悔吧~