Sunday, 28 June 2009

Carol的一萬字~Part 11.1

這種非正式的單車比賽,姑且稱之為單車對決。單車對決的規則很簡單,就是以最快的速度抵達終點。期間大家只可以使用單車作武器,例如衝撞對方。由於是非正式比賽,雙方不會對傷亡作出任何責任,而隊中通常都有隊醫。一場對決通常是三對三或六對六。 回到這個新的家「家」,在癱倒在白滑柔軟的床上之前,我還是把整座屋子看過一遍。 我之前一直都沒有注意到,一樓有通往其他屋的通道,而通道的頂方和兩邊都是用玻璃搭成。這也意味著屋子互相連接成一個條巨大的單車場!此外一、二樓之間除了有電梯和樓梯連接著外,還有一條斜路連接著這兩層,方便使用者可以快速來往一二樓以及其他房子。 三樓的擺設都比較特別,整層都是睡房:除了床、電腦、書架外睡房另一邊還設了一張吧台,只是令人哭笑不得的是,吧台後面是放了不少酒,當中也有名酒……可是我也才快十八歲,還不能喝洒啊! 翌日,吐露港公路。 雖說是放暑假,但以農曆計算已近大暑。換言之,是最熱的幾天。萬里晴空加上三十八度的高溫,旁邊是呼嘯而過的汽車,更會排出熾熱的廢氣。這樣的天氣,又會有多少人願意出來踩單車呢? 在惡毒的太陽下,大概就只有我知紫欣在這公路上吧。 這是我第一次使用自己的「戰車」,就如想像中一樣踩起來毫不費力,但要控制起來就難一點了。要從村裡一直追上紫欣那種職業車手的速度,還要轉上不少彎,真的不容易。看見她應付自如的樣子,我真的懷疑自已到底有甚麼能耐能夠混進來。 「嗯~今天天氣還不錯呢。先來長跑吧!從這裡到沙田馬場的來回就差不多十公里了。我會在旁邊踩單車監視著你的哦!」紫欣一邊把我的車鎖起一邊這樣道。 「可是……今天這樣做大概會變成人乾吧。從這裡到沙田一路都很曬啊……喂!」我還沒有說完,她已經騎上單車向沙田飛弛而去,我也只好跑上去。 她似乎無意拋離我,要追上她還是很因難,等到我追上去時,我才發現,我們早已跑過馬場,比預訂的跑多了。 一路跑其實不會感到疲累,但你一停下來時身邊彷如上升十幾度,渾身發熱,尤其是長跑過後,我汗如雨下,甚至有點暈眩。 「跑得不錯啊!不過要快一點了,不然趕不及回去的話要加班訓練哦!」她笑著掏出了支特大礦泉給我。 焦灼的喉嚨就如遇到清涼的泉源,一大支水一下子就被吞了下去,還一邊給自己灌水一邊跑回去追著她。 真的很奇怪。要是平時我早就趴在地上動彈不得了(雖然這樣的天氣我趴下去也會彈起來)……難道,她可以瞬間提升我的體能……?

Thursday, 25 June 2009

26-06-09 ~ END OF ExAM ~ 100th DiAry

教統局投下2顆TSA炸彈後,考試終於無條件投降…… Free! "I will break this seal of curse if a possibly can for freedom of EVERY MAN!!!" ---- Through the fire and flames @9:45 Ms Lo叫停之後大概係全級歡呼~~ @9:50 會射十二碼的人請收聲 XD @10:05 正式解放 XDD @10:30 ~花墟球場xFIFA Timothy - "打波先黎落雨?" Fatmon被省中次數: 2 Rio"射死角"越楣次數:5 @11:15 ~ 又一城xProductivity Council "又冇左12分……" @12:15 ~ fatmon女中 [?] "佢咁耐都夫黎? 佢係行上黎,定爬牆上黎? ……定係coronary heart disease?" @1:30 ~ PAGE ONE "呢本包唔包software?" @3:00 ~ 信和 "我要呢件~!!" "我係咪記錯左?" @4:30 ~ New century Plaza "Yes... well.... good morning..." "This phnoe number has been cancelled..." "喂??~~~~" @6:00 ~ Sports corner "Cooking mama 好好玩 XD" 到底邊個講邊句?大家估下啦 XD

Wednesday, 24 June 2009

Economic relationship between Hong Kong and other countries

(too much tables on relationship between HK and mainland, included in the .doc. verison) Division of labour refers to the production of good or service is divided into different production stages and each worker specialises in one or more stages. International division of labour Different countries/regions specialise in different production stages – with improvement in communication and transport facilities, business man act as the middlemen to separate production into different stages. Different countries/regions specialise in producing different products – This country/region can produce these products or services at a lower cost than others. International trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and services between different countries and regions. It has the following advantages: 1) Acquire resources – This satisfies the demand of residents and supports industrial and commercial development. e.g., HK acquire raw materials through importing. 2) Improve living standard – Through international division of labour, countries/regions can engage in economic activities that they’re good at, and exchange good and services they need, and raise quantity and quality of output, thereby improving people’s standard of living. (e.g. HK imports car to give residents more transportation options) 3) Earn foreign exchange – through international trade, manufacturers earn foreign exchanges, they’re used to purchase raw material or for investment, and further promote Hong Kong’s economic development. 4) Provide job opportunities – International trade provides job opportunities. 5) Facilitate international understanding and exchange – through economic corporation, countries can get know of others’ strengths and needs and strengthens the link between HK and other countries, and promote mutual understanding and exchange of technology. Hong Kong participate to international organizations to foster trade liberalization and international economic corporation, and use the name “Hong Kong, Chine” according to the Basic Law. World Trade Organisation (WTO) – set up multilateral trade system; promote liberalization of international trade and conduct trading business. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) – Regional forum for senior government official to discuss issues on promoting economic growth and cooperation, and trade and investment as well. Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC)- Promote active collaboration on matters of common interest. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – Promote economic development among members and assist development on industrialized countries and emerging countries.

EPA notes - Mass media

(oh... hateful mass media XD.) (I have to use font 10, Arial to fit the note in 2 page ~_~) Mass media transmit information to general publics; e.g. radio and the Internet. Through the mass media, we can receive local and international news. There’re four functions of mass media: 1) Transmitting information – we can receive variety information from mass media. 2) It also provides channels for the public to express their opinions, including letters to newspaper and phone-in program. 3) It also educates the public though educational programmer or publications. 4) It also provides entertainment; examples include serialized drama for television channels and musical programmes for radio channels. Importance 1) Monitoring society and government – highlighting social problems and monitor the government. e.g. concerning on unemployment problem and government policies. 2) Source of different viewpoints – They report social issues on different angles and viewpoints. People can gain more through understanding of the situation. This helps promote idea exchange, and government may informed of public opinions. 3) Outlet for express dissatisfaction constructively and helps maintain social stability. 4) They provide global news and information and promote international communication and understanding. In order to fulfill those functions of mass media, they exercise the freedom of press and publication; and shouldering their responsibilities as well. Freedom of press – journalist can report the news freely. Freedom of publication – people may express themselves through publication. They can freely report in different angles and channel different viewpoints. They should also act in the interest of the public and highlight social problems, and giver factual, accurate, objective and fair reports. Mass media can be further classified into print media (newspaper, magazines, and books) and electronic media (radio, TV, the Internet). There’re lots of print media in Hong Kong, varies from technical matters to entertainment. Domestic free television programme services: Television Broadcasts Limited and Asia Television Limited→the only 2 licenses, and the publicly founded Radio Television of Hong Kong produces television programmes to let TVB or ATV to broadcast. Domestic pay television programme services: Hong Kong Cable Television Limited and Hong Kong Broadband Network→the only 2 licenses, offering 24-hours news and movie broadcast. Non-domestic television programme services: Galaxy Satellite Broadcasting→only license. Radio: Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company Limited (Commercial Radio) and Metro Broadcast Corporation Limited (Metro Broadcast) are two commercial radio stations, providing 24-hour news and entertaining programmes. Films: Hong Kong is a major film-producing center, it produce nearly 100 films a year. Print and broadcast media will also upload their publications, radio, programmes or broadcasting onto the Internet and open to public through this Internet platform. Improper use of mass media and its impact 1) False and inaccurate reports – exaggerated reports, e.g. showy headlines and sensational descriptions. It may also contain conjecture, inaccuracy and lies. This will mislead public and even damage the reputation or interest of people involved 2) Intrusion of privacy – they chase on public figures and made news on them to achieve high rate. This infringes on public figures’ privacy and causes disturbances to their lives. 3) Emphasising improper values, e.g. sexual, violent or gang-related, giving negative influence on children and teenagers, corrupt general social morals and indirectly cause social problem. 4) News mixed with entertainment information –over-emphasise of entertainment information, lowering quality of news report and public won’t take the news seriously, and understand it in a sincere and objective way. Measures taken of government -Legislation on defamation (person who is being defamed may sue the mass media for defamation or damages), contempt of court (before the judgment of court, the mass media mustn’t made any judgment on the case) and the Indecent and obscene articles (mass media are subject to the Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance, who publishes obscene articles can be jailed). -Regulatory bodies: Broadcasting Authority regulates and sets guidelines for broadcasting services. Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority examines samples from TV and radio to see if codes of practice are violated and penalises them. Handle public complaints and censor films that intended for public exhibition aw well. Obscene Articles Tribunal determines whether an article is obscene or indecent. Self discipline of mass media -Set up (independent) monitoring organization to do internal monitoring and handle public complaints and conduct investigations. -establish guidelines.—journalist take public interest as basis of their work, and uphold the principle of truth, objectivity and fairness. -Upgrade the quality of profession – provide more training on their staff. Individual roles: - Assess the credibility of the report – whether its views are credible. - Don’t trust authoritative source blindly – it may not necessarily be fair, impartial or correct. - Distinguish between facts and opinions. - Don’t grasp information from headlines and lead paragraphs to avoid misleading yourself.

Sunday, 21 June 2009

International cooperation

Hague conference The first Hague Conference – 26 countries met at Hague, Holland to discuss disarmament among major European powers, in 1899. The second Hague Conference – 40 countries joined, in 1907. They failed to prevent outbreak of WWI, but they have set up the Hague Tribunal to settle future international disputes. The League of Nations In 1919, President Wilson of US suggested to form a peacemaking organization, and to solve problems by discussing but not by fighting. It was set up in 2020, its HQ were in Geneva, Switzerland. The objectives include: cooperate with others; work for peace among all nations; respect other’s boundaries; settle dispute peacefully through this organizations; take action if a member was attacked, and set up and accept the decisions of the Court of International Justice. Achievement: It encouraged its members to provide better wages and working conditions in their country; controlled the spread of epidemics; and improved the health services of under-developed areas in the world. Weakness 1) President Wilson thought that members can protect each other by arm force originally, but many countries didn’t want to use armed force after WWI, and thus it’s lack of armed force to carry out its decisions. 2) Lack of support from US which had a strong influence to the world at that time. 3) Lack of fund. At the end, it can settle dispute among small nations, but failed to maintain world peace – failed to stop aggression from the axis power and led to the outbreak of the WWII. It was formally dissolved in 1946 (the year after WWII). The United Nations Britain, China, the US and USSR planned for a new organization to replace the League of Nations after WWII. 51 countries met in San Francisco and signed the United Nations Charter in 1945. It officially started on 24 Oct. 1945. Its HQ is at New York City. There’s two olive branches surround the world and symbolizing world peace in the UN flag. - The General Assembly for all members to debate world issues and set policies of UN. - The Security Council is responsible to preserve international peace and security, and Britain, France, Russia (former USSR), China (PRC) and the US are permanent members of the Council. - The secretariat – Administrative region, carries out day-to-day work of UN. Headed by the secretary-general and as a mediator between administrative region and other parts of UN. (Kofi Annan → Ban Ki-moon) - The Economics and Social Council – to raise living standards and improve economic conditions throughout the world. Agencies include FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), UNESCO (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and WHO (World Health Organization). - Trusteeship Council – promote self-government in non-independent countries. - The International Court of Justice – handles dispute against international law. - Other works include providing shelter for refugees; providing financial aid to developing countries; take care of underprivileged children; protecting human rights; increasing food production; developing education and Improving sanitary conditions. Achievements 1) Settling International Disputes successfully so far. Examples include quarrels among Israel, Palestine and Arabia; forced Iraq to remove troops from Kuwait during Persian Gulf War. 2) Promoting International Cooperation – held conference to solve global problems since 1960s, and worked on international disarmament and banned nuclear and biological weapons. 3) Providing humanitarian assistance – help refugees, underdeveloped and war-torn nations; emergency aid for developing countries. Examples: Vietnam refugees. 4) Improved social, economic, cultural and sanitary conditions in the world, and established the basic rights of every person on earth. It also helped developing countries to improve the public health service. Weaknesses 1) It’s only a voluntary organization and lack of independent armed force→ reliance on members to supply armed force. 2) Lack of sufficient funds. (The US didn’t give money to UN.) 3) Overuse of veto power in the Security Council – Once veto power is used, the issues is canceled. Therefore some countries used this power for their own selfish reasons, and the UN is hard to make effective actions against those countries.

21-6-09

真的溫到傻了 把shape打成shade Geog 講Indsutry 中文做到dizzy 英文crazy 數學計probability Physics講duality* Biology講circulatory Chemistry講reactivity History講Hong Kong in 20 century EPA講productivity 大家Don't say "Lazy"** COME ON, BABY!!! (謎:H1N1 you're so naughty!!!!) *wave-particle duality, 波粒二象性 **Don't say "Lazy"係一首日文歌黎 好好聽 XD

Friday, 19 June 2009

19-6-09

夜深。 已經是凌晨一點了。 股市有云,五窮六絕七翻身。 原來,學業也是。 正所謂五月飛霜,六月飛的,就是試卷。 是空白的試卷、撕碎的試卷、充斥著自由基,令人變老的試卷。 難為了萃萃學子,日溫夜溫,還要挑最靜的時候溫。 樓下酒吧在夜晚顯得格外醒神,鮮艷的霓虹燈閃爍著,喧鬧聲嘈雜不斷。 要不是足球聯賽已經完了的話,大概會更囂鬧吧。 「啪!」一疊筆記掉在地上。 月光下依稀看到那疊筆記已經很舊了。應該說是用得很舊。 上面寫著不少補充,摺角位已經皺起了。 少年緩緩撿起暗處的筆記,他的動作看起來就像個六七歲的老人,背後看起來更帶無盡的嘆息。 「GOAL!」不知那隊又進球了吧。 樓下的狂歡,與上面的悲涼反映出極大對比。 「啪!」他手上又一個咖啡罐被捏扁。這是他第三罐咖啡了,但厚重的鏡片背後仍是一片迷茫。 他拿起手提電話打給別人,聲音在空洞的房子背後顯得格外寂寞。 「喂,是你嗎?」 「嗯……那麼晚還沒溫好嗎?」接電話的人是把清脆甜美的女聲,不過顯然也很倦了。 「我可以問一下你Bio嗎?」他有點膽怯地道。 「沒問題啦,只是我真的好睏,答完你我就去睡了哦。」 「……好吧。為甚麼血壓是用mm Hg量的?」他的聲音帶著一種不捨。 「唉~你的common sense也太common了吧。手動式的血壓計充氣時也會對水銀柱施力,水銀受壓上漲,所以就用mm來量水銀上升高度作為指標啊!」電話另一邊傳來了嬌嗔,「難怪你連滇越公路和滇越鐵路也搞混了吧。」 「我才不會!滇越公路是雲南軍民在1942年以人力 9個月內建成的吧!」 「嗯~那就對了~晚安」對方打了個呵欠,斷了線。 少年嘆了口氣,繼續溫書。 咖啡香氣飄出充斥酒氣的室外,不知道在這醉人的月光下,又有多少人被迷住,思念遙遠的他方,把知識通通還給老師? ======================================================= Maths 「煎」 中史 「炒」 I.S. 「炸」 好驚……呢個已經超出二次範圍…… 已許像德國剷平法國一樣吧?

Thursday, 18 June 2009

Circulatory system

We need a transportation system to link up different parts of our body, to supply nutrients and oxygen, and take away wastes and carbon dioxide. It’s known as the circulatory system, made up of the followings: 1) Blood, fluid that transport materials. It’s the suspension of cells in a pale yellow liquid called plasma, containing water, dissolved nutrients, wastes and other substances, and make up 55% of blood. (tables of different blood cells missed here.) 2) Blood vessels, a network of tube for blood to pass through. (Arteries, capillaries and Veins) (Tables on different kinds of blood vessels missed here) 3) Heart, the pump to make the blood to circulate the network. Blood flows like this “(different parts of our body)→right auricle→right ventricle→lung→left auricle→left ventricle”. There’re heart strings to hold the valves between auricles and ventricles, septum is used to separate the left and right parts of heart, and there’re valves in the arteries in the heart (the only arteries that have valves) When auricles relax, blood flows in the auricles, when it contract, blood was squeezed into ventricles, and when ventricles contract, it flows into the large arteries. Blood flows through the heart twice (lung: pulmonary circulation and the rest of the body: systemic circulation) to complete one circulation so it’s called double circulation. Heartbeat rate, pulse rate and blood pressure can be the indicators of our health. Heartbeat rate which we can feel at left chest, equal our pulse rate which we can feel it on areas that arteries pass through near the skin, e.g. wrist, neck and temple. It’s about 70 when we’re at rest. Varies of diseases can be indicated in the change of rate, rhythm and force of the pulse. When blood is pumped out, it rushes into blood vessels and presses on their walls and produces a pressure on the blood vessels, called blood pressure. It’s measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). When the heart contracts, it’s about 120mm Hg, when the heart relax, it’s about 80mm Hg, and it’s expressed as 120/80mm Hg. It can be measured with a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer. There’re also some electronic measuring devices as well. However, it will change with age, sex, health condition and the mood of the person. Eating for a healthy circulatory system We should not eat a lot of cholesterol, which always appear in fatty foods. Some of them come from membranes and hormones, and also come from our body. There are some uses in our body, but it’ll also deposits in the inner walls of the blood vessels and hardens the walls and cause high blood pressure. When the deposits keep increasing, it’ll even trigger the blood platelets to form clots and totally stuck the blood vessels. If blockage happens in the cor0onary arteries, supply of O2 and nutrients for heart muscles is not enough, coronary heart disease my happen and heart attack will happen. If blockage or rupture happens in the brain arteries, stroke may result, brain cells which can’t be recovered are damaged due to lack of O2, paralysis or death may happen depends on how the brain is damaged. We avoid eating of fatty meats, organ meats and egg yolk. It’s recommend that we shouldn’t take over 300mg per day. Fats are made up of glycerol and fatty acids and can be classifying into two types: 1) Saturated fatty acids raise the cholesterol level in blood. They mainly come from animal origin and some plant product such as coconut and palm oil. 2) Unsaturated (can be further classify into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) fatty acids reduce the cholesterol level in the blood, usually found in nuts, seed, nuts and oil. No. of red/white blood cells, blood platelets, blood haemoglobin content, blood glucose and blood cholesterol is also indicators of health. We have to keep fit (fitness of body, not the body shape) to have a higher resistance to disease, withstand stress better, react faster, keep a good body figure with healthy weight and fully enjoy our life. There’re several indicators: 1) Body Mass Index (BMI) = Weight (kg)/height (m)2, and18.5-24.9 is normal. Regular exercises help us to keep normal weight. 2) Pulse rate. Healthier person has a healthier heart that can pump more efficiently, and they have a lower resting pulse rate and shorter recovery time after exercise. 3) Vital capacity is the max. vol. of air can be blow out from the lung by the deepest breath, which can be measured by a breath volume kit. Normally 4000mL. 4) S-factors: Strength – the amount of force that your muscles can exert; suppleness --- for us to stretch, bend and twist freely; and stamina keep us going when we exercise hard. Stronger heart and lungs can supply more oxygen to support us.

Physics – total internal reflection and colours

Total internal reflection By Shell’s Law, we know that the value of sin x can’t be larger than 1. But if one side of the equation is larger than the refractive index on another side, we’ll found that another side of the equation can never equal to another side, and the total internal reflection occur. It’s a “reflection” so that it obeys the law of reflection. For example, the light strike from glass (R.I. 1.7) to air, 1.7sin (angle of incidence) =1sin (angle of refraction), if the angle of incidence is big enough, equation can’t hold. The “big enough” limit is called the critical angle, and c=sin-1 (1/x). It follows that when the R.I. is bigger, critical angle is smaller and total internal reflection is easier to happen. This explained why it mostly happen in medium with higher R.I.. Applications: 1) Views under water – when you’re under water, you may not see the image above water if the angle of incidence is big enough, and the range that you can see image above water is in cone shape, with the axis from your eyes, perpendicular to the water surface. (This is because the angle of incidence is limited.) 2) Periscope – If we use glass with enough big R.I.(bigger than 1.5, usually, is enough), we can make two 45-90-45 triangular prisms to reflect light just like plane mirrors. 3) Diamond – it’s so bright because it’s R.I. is too high (above 2) such that all light (especially after process) will be reflected back. 4) “Cat’s eye” in front of the car uses the same rule to give out strong light. Optical fibres Optical fibre is a tube-like device which can transmit light. It's made by glass and some other material, layer by layer. Since total internal reflection always occur inside the tube, and the tube can be bent into a certain angle, it can transmit light in the curved path. There is various application of optical fibre. The most important use is the usage on telecommunication services. Comparing with the traditional wire, it's much cheaper since the traditional wire uses a lot of copper. Even the material cost is more expensive than the production cost of optical fibre considering the same volume. Another important use is endoscope for surgery. Colours When a narrow white light passes through a triangular (△ shape) glass prism, it will changed into a fan of colours, from the top to bottom; red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and purple. This band of colours is called the colour spectrum, and we say that it is the dispersion of the white light. One of its applications is the rainbow. After raining, the air is full of small water droplets. They refracted (twice; in and out the water droplets), reflected (total internal reflection within the water droplets) and disperse the sun light to colour spectrum into our eyes. White light is the mixture of three primary coloured lights, red, blue and green. They can produce all colours. Red and blue produces magenta, red and green produces yellow, blue and green produces cyan, and all three together produce white light. Colour televisions produces different colours on the TVs by giving signals to three phosphor dots inside the TV and give out red, blue and green colours. We sense colours also because the three types of cones cells and receive the three kind of primary coloured lights. Those who do not have enough cones cells is called to have colour blindness, and it’s inherited and can’t be corrected. Those who have defect on all three types of cones cells are called total colour blindness. We see object because they reflect that light to us. For example, apples reflects red light to us. Other lights will be absorbed (and turned into heat energy). Another example is that white object reflects everything to us and thus we see it’s white, which is the mixture of red, blue and green light. “The object with colour N, shined by colour X, will reflect light that N and X contains commonly and absorb the remaining part.” E.g. When a cyan object shined by yellow light, it will reflect green light (which cyan and yellow contains commonly) and absorb red light (the remaining part of yellow.) Colour filters are used to let certain lights to pass through and absorb the remaining light. “The colour filters with colour N, shined by colour X, will let light that N and X contains commonly to pass through, and absorb the remaining part.” The function between a normal object and a colour filter a nearly the same, but colour filters is designed to let light to pass through it.

抗日、內戰及中華人民共和國歷史

註1:這篇是趕考試打的,所以"文革的後果"沒打上去,錯漏也比較多 註2:這篇可能比較長(約3800字),因為涉及到近60年的近代史,而且有少許補充資料是課本以外的。
(例如關於滇緬路)

抗日戰爭歷時八年(37年7月到45年8月),又可分為退守、相持和決勝三階段。
雖然國共合作後仍然實力不足,但日本視之為實力增強的大患,於是展開全面侵華。37年6月,日軍於北平外圍進行挑釁性軍事演習。7月7日,日軍借口一士兵失蹤要求進入宛平城被拒,砲轟城外的盧溝橋,第二十九路軍予以抵抗,中日戰爭正式開始,稱為七七/盧溝橋事變,事後共產黨發表抗日通電:蔣介石在廬山發表抗戰的宣言。從七七事變到次年10月武漢撤守為退守的階段,日本揚言三個月佔領中國,一方面攻陷北平、天津,又開啟淞滬戰場;並守上海達三個月,年底始被攻陷,日軍屠殺城市三十萬人,史稱南京大屠殺。南京陷落前國民政府遷都重慶。退守期間曾取得平型關和台兒莊大捷。 (日軍稱之為「玉碎戰」)
在38年武漢失守到41年底珍珠港事變為相持階段,國軍主力撤入西部高山丘陵地帶,利用地形抗衡日軍的機動化優勢。日本亦實行以華制華,進一步扶植汪精衛於南京成立偽國民政府,維持日佔區秩序和提供補給。 此時東南沿海已為日佔區,只能依靠西南邊境,但西方列強無暇東顧,因此與日本妥協,封鎖了滇緬公路和滇越鐵路。但中國當時奇跡地九個月內不以重型機械輔助,以軍民力量九個月內建成滇緬公路。此外,中國在長沙會戰中接連勝利,華北和江南地區的八路軍和新四軍(均為共產黨)亦參與對日遊擊戰。
一直到45年8月日本投降為止,是決勝階段。由於日軍於中國戰場陷於停滯,企圖繞過中南半島攻擊中國大後方,但其南進道路受阻於英美,所以日軍先偷襲檀香山附近的(海軍)軍事基地珍珠港,以致英美向日本宣戰,太平洋戰爭爆發。中國又與英美蘇等結盟,共同向軸心國作戰。中國軍隊於45年向閩浙、廣西作出反攻。45年5月,德國投降;8月,美國向日擲下原子彈,幾十萬人死傷,同月15日,日本無條件投降。中國的八年抗戰以勝利結束。
其勝利歸於以下原因:
全民抗戰──中國人民同仇敵愾,展開民族自衛戰,是抗戰勝利的基礎。
國共合作──西安事變後雙方站在同一戰線,國軍在正面戰場與日軍對抗製造大戰役,八路軍和新四軍(共軍)在敵佔區發動遊擊,造成夾擊之勢。 戰略奏效──日軍深入內地時機械化裝備的優勢難以發揮;國軍退至高山丘陵地帶,共軍於日軍後方建立抗日根據地,使日本不能構成有效的佔領,腹背受敵。
盟國協助──太平洋戰爭爆發後,中、英、美、蘇結盟,有助抗戰。

國共內戰

抗日時國共仍有磨擦,40月1月,皖南新四軍被國軍聚殲。後來國共為了爭奪日佔區的利益而磨擦加劇,國共分別有自己的行政轄區和軍隊,出現大規模內戰的跡象。抗戰結束後,蔣介石邀毛澤東到重慶會談,10月10日簽下雙十協定,雙方願意以和平、民主、團結為基礎建立中國,次年初在美國調停下簽訂停戰協定,並在重慶召開政治協商會議,決議包括實施和平建國綱領、整編軍隊、召開國民大會、制定憲法且實施前國民政府為最高權力機關。但實際上雙方武裝衝突沒有停止。46年6月,國民政府召集大軍發動全面進攻,國共內戰正式開始。 當時國民黨兵力四百三十萬人;控制三億人口,有大城市,主要鐵路和豐富生產資備,又有日軍裝備和美國支援;共軍一百二十萬人,控制一億三千萬人口,雖接收日軍少數裝備,但在軍力及生產資源上都處於劣勢。

內戰初期國(政府)軍搶攻,佔領百多座城鎮,更一度佔領延安,而解放軍採取運動戰消耗對方兵力。次年夏國軍兵力降到四百萬,失去全面進攻能力,而解放軍增到二百萬人,開始反擊;48年8月,共軍280萬,國軍360萬。期後的三場大戰使國民黨大勢盡去:遼瀋戰役(48年9-11月),國軍47萬人被殲;准(南至准海)海(東至海州)之戰(48年11月到49年1月),國軍失去南京的門戶和軍事基地徐州,55萬人被殲;同時的平津戰役國軍被殲52萬人。蔣介石輸掉東北、華北、中原地區以及150萬軍隊後引退,由李宗仁接任總理。當時共軍增至300萬人,49年4月國民黨派人到北平談判,談判裂後共軍過江攻下首都南京。國民政府先後遷都至廣州、重慶、成都,李宗仁見無事可為,經香港前往美國,12月國民政府遷台。 9月時共產黨在北平召開中國人民政治協商會議第一屆全體會議,通過中國人民政治協商會議共同綱領,選毛澤東為中央人民政府主席。10月1日周恩來被任命為政務院總理兼外交部長,並舉行開國大典。

中華人民共和國(下稱中國)在最初兩三年實行「土地改革」──50年6月頒佈中華人民共和國土地改革法;「鎮壓反革命」──同年7月頒佈關於鎮壓反革命的指示,又稱「鎮反」;「三反五反」,即「反貪污、反浪費、反官僚主義」(對內部機關)、「反行賄、反偷稅漏稅、反盜竊國家資材、反偷工減料、反盜竊國家經濟情報」(對工商業者)。五年計劃(53-57)──農業、手工業、私人工商業的社會主義改造(生產資料從私有改為公有,包括了集體所有制和全民所有制),生產了很多中國原本沒有的商品。農民和手工業者合作化:改組成農業生產合作社和手工業生產合作社,又將私營工商企業改為公私合營,採取贖買政策,逐漸改為國營。 56年基本完成了農業、手工業集體化和工商業國有化等三大社會主義改造。

54年9月通過中華人民共和國憲法,規定中國是以工農聯盟為基礎的人民民主國家,各族平等相處、全國人民代表大會為最高機關;毛澤東為主席,劉少奇為全國人大常委會委員長、周恩來為國務院總理。57年進行整風運動,容許提出批評意見,毛提出百家齊放、百家爭嗚的基本(雙百)方計,但他又認為他們批評共產黨政策是蓄意攻擊其領導,指他們為右派,變成反右派鬥爭,結果不少上被安上「反黨反社會主義」。次年推行第二個五年計劃,提出社會主義建設總路線,分別為總路線──鼓足幹勁,力爭上游,多快好省地建設社會主義;大躍進──訂高指標,「全民大煉鋼」,用土高爐,行土法煉鋼,農業實行深翻土地,高度密植,宜揚高產田(虛報產量)。人民公社──將農業生產合作社改組合併以成立人民公社;行集體所有制,它又分為三級,公社、生產大隊和生產隊,按勞取酬。但三面紅旗脫離現實,蘇聯又與其交惡,撤走專家和授助,59至61年出了三年饑荒。

59年第二屆全國人民代表大會上劉少奇取代毛成為國家主席,毛仍為黨主席。劉和鄧小平進行較為實際調整工作,62年經濟有所恢復。 由於毛澤東的三面紅旗使其聲望受損,而劉少奇實行三自一包,即自留地、自由市場、自負盈虧和包產到戶,被認為是資本主義復辟,使毛不滿,他亦不承認其失誤,同時想收回失去的權力。62年之後,他不斷強調社會有階級鬥爭,黨內也出現「走資本主義道路的當權派」於是在66年發動文革。

66年5月16日,中共發出毛制定的中國共產黨中央委會員通知,成立中央文革小組,目標為整肅黨內的走資派和資產階級反動學術權威。毛亦親自寫了炮打蝨令部的大字報。文革開始後不久,清華大學附中率先組成紅衛兵,全國仿效,毛先後八次接見紅衛兵。他們借「破四舊、立四新」(思想、文化、風俗、習慣),到處批鬥和銷毀文物,還自稱遵照毛「造反有理」來做。 67年起各地革命造反派奪取地方各級黨和政府領導權,另組革命委員會。次年劉少奇終被鬥下台。林彪取代劉成為接班人後急欲成為國家主席,引起毛的反感。 71年他發動政變事敗墜機於外蒙古,周恩來接手主持中共中央日常工作。江青、張春橋、姚文元和王洪文結成四人幫攻擊周恩來,希望得到實際權力。

76年1月周恩來去世,由鄧小平接任,他著手改正文革偏向;同年清明發生民眾悼念周恩來、抨擊文革的天安門事件,鄧小平再被罷黜。同年9月,毛澤東死。華國鋒在軍權的葉劍英等支持下逮捕四人幫,繼任中共中央主席,文革至此結束。 鄧小平後來取代華國鋒,又推動四個現代化(農業、工業、國防、科技),對內廢除人民公社,在城市擴大企業自主權,建立社會主義市場經濟體制。對外亦在深圳、珠海設經濟特區,在上海、廣州等多個沿海港口城市設沿海經濟開放區。

 80年代以來工農業均有大幅進展,解決了溫飽問題;03和05分別發射神舟五和六號載人飛船。不過改革期間也出現通脹加虧、貧富懸殊擴大、幹部貪污腐化,期間89年民眾悼念前中共中央總書記胡耀邦時觸發反貪污、反官倒活動,軍方於6月4日出動坦克鎮壓,屠殺市民,因此又被稱為六四事件。 另外國營企業的低效益和腐敗亦受到批評。97年鄧小平去世後江澤民、朱鎔基相繼接任,03年由胡錦濤任國家主席,溫家寶任國務院總理。 其外交堅持五項原則:互相尊重領土和主權完整;互不侵犯;不干涉他人內政;平等互利和和平共處。到06年中國已有180個國家與中國建立外交關係,71年取代民國在聯合國的合法席位,成為安理會五個常任理事國之一;01年加入世貿和取得08年夏季奧運會主辦權。現時中國已在世界有舉足輕重的地位。 49年國民黨遷台後與對岸呈長期對立。75年蔣介石去世,總統先後由嚴家淦、蔣經國和李登輝出任。00年起陳水扁成為總統,但他被揭分涉及貪污舞弊案,民眾發起反貪腐倒扁大合動。台灣於50年代實行土地改革,60年代實行9年免費教育、70年代後成為亞州四小龍之一。79年元旦共產黨對台發表告台灣同胞書,建議三通(通商、通航、通郵),80年代初又提出一國兩制。93年4月,共產黨派海峽兩岸關係協會會長汪道涵和海峽交流其金會董事長辜振甫在新加坡會談,簽署多項協議;03年歷史性通航;05年國民黨和親民黨主席連戰和宋楚瑜先後到大陸訪問胡錦濤。台灣在李登輝時強調雙方是特殊的國與國關係;陳水扁時提出一邊一國論、去中國化,推行台獨,表示台灣是個主權獨立的國家。

(最後一段只是從教科書整理而得。是否政治正確,則見人見智了。)

Tuesday, 16 June 2009

16-6-09

612事變後,Geog、中文相繼失守 F3係英文試卷苦戰一個半鐘後撤退,對C國來說是迎頭一擊!! C國決定實行GE大屠殺,保守估計至少有30分被屠殺…… 史稱「GE大屠殺」。 在豬流感加強侵港下,F3革命軍未能成功圍剿composition 隨著革命軍退守數學戰區,戰果到底如何……? 請看下回分解。

Monday, 15 June 2009

五四運動及國共合作

一戰期間西方列強無暇東顧,日本借機向德宣戰,強奪德佔膠濟鐵路和青島。戰爭結束後,1919年初戰勝國在巴黎召開巴黎和會,中國也參與其中。中國在會中國要求廢除列強在華特權、取消二十一條以及廢除日本在一戰間在山束強佔的各種利益,均遭到拒絕,並且在對德和約中,德國在山東一切利益轉給日本。消息使民眾激憤,觸發五四運動。5月4日多人於天安門集會,提出外爭國權,內除國賊;要求嚴懲接納二十一條給向日本借款的人,包括章宗祥、陸宗輿和曹汝霖;學生毆打章宗祥,又燒了曹汝霖的住宅。軍警拘捕學生後更加激發他們的情緒,學生罷課、工人罷工、商人罷市,北洋政府妥協釋放學生,免去三人職權,以及拒絕和約上簽字。
影響:
捍衛國家權益──學生及各階層的力爭國家權益成功使北洋政府改變外交決定,亦是對列強的警示:中國不再由列強控制。
啟迪青年愛國──五四運動後青年對國家的關心和責任感增加,積極參與政治活動,提高愛國心,反對外國的侵略。
促進文化活動──袁上台後鼓吹「尊孔復古」,陳獨秀和胡適因不認同其行為而推行新文化運動,反對舊禮教、舊道德,提倡民主(德先生)和科學(賽先生)。另外有北大校長蔡元培之大力推動,新文化活動在五中運動中掀起高潮。

國民黨──同盟會改組而成,二次革命後解散,1914年孫中山組識中華革命黨,再於1919年10月改回國民黨,綱領是「三民主義」、打倒軍閥和反帝國主義。
共產黨──1917俄國十月革命成功令中國知識分子研究共產主義,1920年,陳獨秀、李大釗和毛澤東在上海、北京、湖南等地宣揚共產主義小組,次年7月各地派代表在上海舉行會議,選出陳獨秀為第一任中央局書記,中國共產黨正式成立。其綱領為打倒軍閥,趕走帝國主義在華勢力,然後建立民主共和國。
兩黨均主張打倒軍閥和帝國主義,黨員又不足,國民黨沒有軍隊和經費,而共產黨的力量也不足,成為合作的基礎。孫中山也認為要「以俄為師」才可成功革命,1922年蘇俄特使越飛與其會談,次年發表孫文越飛宣言,表示中國革命是要爭取中國真正統一獨立,而蘇俄願意助華。1924年1月國民黨確定「聯俄、容共、扶助農工」三大政策。黨內合作:容共即指共產黨黨員可以以個人身份加入國民黨,更可擔任一定領導職務。軍事合作:孫中山在廣州黃埔創立中國國民黨陸軍軍官學校(黃埔軍校),蔣介石為校長,廖仲愷為國民黨代表,周恩來(共產黨)為政治部副主任。
國民黨成立後,孫中山就在廣州重組軍政府,自任海陸軍大元帥,籌備北伐,但於1925年病逝。他死後國民黨將廣州軍政府改組為國民政府,以汪精衛為主席,1926年7月,蔣介石任革命軍總司令開始北伐。當時直系的吳佩孚控制湖南、湖北、河南,孫傅芳控制福建、江西、浙江、江蘇和安徽,奉系張作霖則控制東北和北洋政府。北伐首先指向直系兩人,分三路出發;西路向兩湖進攻(吳),東路福建,中路江西(孫)。西路成功打敗了吳佩孚的主力,佔領武漢三鎮,國民政府遷到武漢;中、東路亦打敗孫傳芳,佔領了南京。 但同時國民黨內部對「聯俄容共」一直存在分歧,在蘇俄指使下,共產黨更嘗試在國民黨內擴大勢力。
1927年4月國民黨宣佈「清黨(內共產勢力)」,大規模逮捕、殺害共產黨員,在南京另立政府;以汪精衛為首的武漠政府仍與共產黨合作,史稱寧(南京)(武)漢分裂,北伐中途停頓。後來武漢政府於1927年7月召開「分共會議」,正式與共產黨決裂,兩個政府復合,定都南京,史穩寧漢復合。
寧漢復合後蔣介石繼續北伐,直指奉系張作霖。他兵敗撤出關外,在瀋陽附近的皇姑屯車站被日本特務埋下的炸彈炸死。1928年6月,其子張學良宣佈擁護南京政府,東北易幟,北伐完成,中國基本上統一,國民政府統治全國。 國共破裂後國民政府大舉捕殺共產黨和傾向共產黨人士。
1927年8月,周恩來、朱德率領北伐軍中三萬多士兵在南昌起事失敗;9月毛澤東率領北伐軍一部及農民武裝共八千人,在湖南發動秋收暴動,進攻長沙失敗。毛澤東於是帶餘部到井岡山,成為首個農村根據地。次年4月朱德亦率餘部會合毛澤東,組成紅軍,其後多達十多萬人,在贛南、閩西開闢基地,成為後來的基礎。 國民黨後來五次圍攻共產黨,頭4次(1930年底到1933年3月)因紅軍以靈活遊擊應付,日本又加緊侵華,四次圍攻均失敗。1931年11月共產黨在打退3次圍攻後在江西瑞金建立了蘇維埃政權。第5次(1933年底),蔣介石調動一百萬軍隊,配以空軍向以瑞金為中心的共產黨根據地圍攻,紅軍今次全線出擊,硬打硬拚,之後又分兵把守,被動挨打,最後面臨嚴重損失。
紅軍從1934年10月開始長征,在貴州遵義召開中央政治局擴大會議,毛獲選為中央政治局常委,與周恩來負責長征軍事。其主力於次年10月到達陝西部,次年其餘主力也相繼到陝北和甘肅,於是共產黨立足陝北、甘肅、寧夏邊境一帶,以廷安為中心。

國共第二次合作

1927年日本軍人田中義一成為首相後著手侵略東北。1931年9月18日,日本關東軍炸毀南滿鐵路瀋陽近效柳條溝的一段路軌,指是中國所為並砲轟瀋陽,翌日將其佔領,又分兵侵佔遼寧、吉林、黑龍江三省,東北於次年一月淪陷。 1932年1月28日,日軍以上海市民抵制日貨、毆打日僧為借口進去上海閘北,砲轟吳淞要塞,十九路軍抵抗一個月後簽下停戰協定,允許日本在上海駐軍。 同年3月,日本於東北成立偽滿州國,國聯不予承認,日本隨即退出,後來日本在偽滿州國行帝制,溥儀再一次成為傀儡皇帝。同月,日軍進犯熱河並併入偽滿州國,進兵長城,威脅北平、天津,迫使國民政府簽下塘沽協定。

九一八事變以來蔣介石堅持「攘外必先安內」,先行消滅共產黨勢力,沒有抗日之餘反而全力剿共。 1936年國民政府令張學肋的東北軍和楊虎城的西北軍加緊進攻紅軍,他們提出「停止內戰,一致抗日」但不獲接納。同年12月蔣介石到西安督戰,他們實行兵諫,軟禁蔣介石,通電全國,要求停止內戰,一致抗日,史稱西安事變。 在宋美齡和周因來的斡旋下他終於默許停止內戰。張學良陪蔣介石回京,旋即被軟禁。西安事變後西北主力紅軍改編為國民革命軍第八路軍,朱德任總司令,南方紅軍遊擊隊改編為國民革命軍新編第四軍,葉挺任軍長。此為國共第二次合作。

中史- 清未革命以及民國初期的軍閥混戰

清末的革命以孫中山為首。他名文、號逸仙,1866年生於廣東省香山縣翠亨村,到過檀香山及香港讀書,曾上書李鴻章建議改革(主張「人盡其材,地盡其利,物盡其用,貨暢其流」)不遂而投身革命。
1894年,於檀香山成立中國第一個革命團體「興中會」,提出「驅除韃虜,恢復中華,創立合眾政府」的綱領。
1895年,於香港設總部,計劃在廣州起事失敗而被通緝。義和團事件後發動廣東惠州起義,仍告失敗。
1905年他為了集中革命力量,將分散的革命組織(興中會、華興會,光復會)於東京組成中國同盟會,提出「十六字綱領」:「驅除韃虜,恢復中華,創立民國,平均地權」,又解為民族(推翻清朝,解除民族壓迫)、民權(推翻君主專政,成立共和國)、民生(平均地權,解決民生),稱為三民主義。其革命為後來的事業立下基礎,當中以黃花崗之役最大影響。
1911年4月,同盟會於廣州起義,因消息走漏而傷亡慘重,有名可考的死者86人,有遺骸者72人,合稱黃花崗七十二烈士。
黃花崗之役的失敗使其在珠江流域於短期內大舉的計劃受挫,並把軍事目標轉到長江流域一帶。同年初,清政府將民辨的川漢、粵漢鐵路收歸國有,借此向外國銀行借款,出賣路權予列強,受到人民強烈反對,以四川最激烈,他們又成立了「保路同志會」。湖北新軍一部到四川鎮壓,造成武漢兵力空虛,湖北革命黨人借機發難。10月9日,他們在漢口製造炸彈時不慎爆炸,計劃洩露,翌日戒嚴,他們當晚發難,11日控制武昌,成立湖北軍政府,推舉新軍將領黎元洪為元首,國號中華民國,同時,漢陽、漢口亦有新軍起義,武漢三鎮光復。 其後全國共有14個省宣佈獨立,清玫府只能控制直隸、河南、山東、東三省和西北地區。事次革命又稱「辛亥革命」。年底各省代表在南京開會,商討籌組中華民國臨時政府的事宜。次年元旦中華民國成立,孫中山在南京就職成為臨時大總統,成立臨時政府,改用陽曆,以(中華)民國紀元。不久宣統帝退位,清亡。此時中國二千多年來的君主專制統治終於結束。

二次革命

武昌起義後,清延以袁世凱為內閣總理,全權統領北洋軍鎮壓南方革命。他攻陷漢口、漢陽,又砲轟武昌,迫使革命軍議和。當時革命軍軍力難以抗衡,孫中山服從大局,聲明只要袁世凱議和並宣統帝退位,就讓位給他。 1912年3月,孫中山將臨時大總統之位讓予袁,但他為了避免被革命黨人限制,借口北京、天津、保定駐軍譁變,為維持治安拒絕南下,最後臨時政府遷到北京。 8月總幹事宋教仁將同盟會改組為國民黨,計劃成立內閣,但遭袁改組並安排親信出信總理。次年國會召開前夕,宋教仁被暗殺於上海,全國震驚。孫中山主張討伐,但國民黨內意見不一。其後袁世凱未經國會同意向英、法、德、日、俄五國銀行借貸,簽「善後大借款合同」,以增強實力。 6月,袁氏免去江西、安徽、廣東的國民黨國籍都督,另派兵入江西。江西都督李烈鈞首先宣佈獨立,黃興於南京響應並出任討袁軍總司令;事次革命又稱二次革命。但革命軍各自為戰,被袁的強大軍力逐個打破;9月南京陷落,二次革命失敗。孫中山、黃興等流亡海外。其失敗的原因除了缺乏民間支持外(辛亥革命後人民普遍厭戰,上海和廣東商人曾公開反對),也因為只有國民黨反袁,而國民黨籍都督在21人中只佔8人。革命失敗後,袁操縱國會並當選成正式大總統。

為了獨攬權力,解散國會,取消臨時約功,另頒中華民國約法──任期10年,不限連任任期,由現任總統推舉繼任人。 1915年一戰期間日本乘機提出二十一條作為支持帝制的條件,袁為了取得日本支持而答應大部分要求。他派人製造輿論,指中國不宜共和,只宜君主制度,他於12月接受擁戴,1916年元旦登基,改元洪憲。前雲南都督蔡鍔組「護國軍」,獨立、討袁,西南各省響應;孫中山亦發表討袁宣言。原本支持袁稱帝的外國領事怕事情發展為內戰威脅到其國家在華利益,要求袁暫緩稱帝。同時袁親信如段祺瑞和馮國璋均勸其取消帝制。他在眾叛親離下撤銷僅83日的帝制,復任大總統,命段祺瑞組閣,孫中山發表第二次討袁宣言,不久袁病逝。 同年發生府(總統府)院(國務院)之爭,黎元洪(總統)恢復臨時約法,召開國會,與主張責任內閣制的段祺瑞水火不容。黎元洪罷免他,但他號召九省都督獨立作威脅,黎調張勳入京,6月,他入京解散國會,7月1日擁溥儀復位,史稱張勳復辟。黎重新任命段討張,溥儀上任僅十二天就再次退位,結束復辟鬧劇。 段後來以功臣自居,黎退任後由馮繼任,段放棄臨時約法,引發護法之役。1917年,孫中山以西南地區軍閥(雲南滇系唐繼堯,廣西桂系陸榮廷)組護法軍政府,自任大元帥討段。但軍閥沒有護法誠意,此役最後不了了之。 袁死後北洋軍閥分成三派:以馮為首的直(隸)系,張為首的奉(天)系及以段為首的皖系。另外還有閻錫山的晉系。重要戰役有三場:1920年,直+奉VS皖,皖敗,勢九瓦解。1922年直奉戰爭,奉敗;1924年第二次直奉戰爭,直敗。

Friday, 12 June 2009

Geography - Japan Miricle (Heavy Industry)

(thanks for whom used my notes...) The heavy industry in Japan refers to: 1) Car industry – during Korean War in 1950s, U.S. ordered lots of army trucks from Japan which stimulates the growth of Japan’s car industry, the rapid increase on domestic demand also boosted the growth. Moreover, its overseas market has expended due to its reasonable prices. The production process is now computerized and automated. 2) Iron and steel industry – The iron and steel plant are large so that those integrated works can produce huge amount of iron and steel at a low cost, due to the economies of scale (when the profit is higher, the fixed cost of each product is lower.). It’s slightly decreased due to competitions from other countries. 3) Japan consists of four islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and also separated from other Asian countries by seas so ship is a important means of transport, and shipbuilding industry has a long history development in Japan. 4) Chemical industry, machinery industry, transport equipment industry and petroleum and coal refining industry are also important heavy industry in Japan. They contribute more than 80% of the total export value of Japan, and provide a source of raw materials for other industries for Japan. Raw materials affect the development of heavy industry in Japan a lot. Japan has a limited reserve of iron ore, copper, lead and zinc, and mostly scattered along coasts. In the past, heavy industry located close to the source of raw materials and fuels. Coal and iron ore deposits had a strong influence to the location of iron and steel plant. They located near those deposits to deduce the transportation cost. But now, local supply is nearly exhausted and can’t meet the demands of rapid development, and so those raw materials come from the importing from other countries. Therefore heavy industry now located mainly at eastern and southern Honshu and northern Kyushu, with following reasons: 1) Locating near shelter bay. It’s important to source of raw materials in Japan so that those imported raw materials can be protected. 2) Good ports with deep habours have been developed, are well-equipped and with modern port facilities. These facilities allow Japan imports raw materials and fuels and export finished goods safely. The distribution of heavy industry refers to: 1) High population density. Large population in cities provides abundant workers for factories, and those urban centers are also markets for finished goods. 2) Different types of heavy industry closed to each other. It’s called industrial agglomeration, which provides mutual benefits for the owners. e.g., by locating near the iron and steel plant, the car industry save the cost of transporting raw materials. Also, the cost of services required by heavy industries can be shared. Heavy industry needs huge amount of raw material and fuels, but Japan only has a limited supply, so she import lots of raw materials and fuels from others. (* holds the biggest share) Iron ore Australia*, Brazil, India and Philippines Coal Australia*, China and Indonesia Oil Middle east*, Indonesia and China On the other side, the aid of technology and government policy helps those industry a lot. Technological improvements help minimize the expenditure by reducing raw material and fuels needed in the production. Also the use of scrap iron further reduces the need for iron ore. Dumped cars and scraped iron can replace some of the iron ore. Energy-saving devices reduce the use of fuels. Improved transportation technology lowers the cost of importing raw materials and fuels. All of the above technologies increase the competitiveness of Japanese goods. Also, production by machines (mechanization) is adopted and has the following advantages: 1) Work faster and run the clock – increase the efficiency. (efficiently) 2) Help to standardize production process → consistent quality 3) Less prone to human error → more precise (precisely) 4) Can do dangerous process such as welding. The following institutions were set up: 1) Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) (1949), planning industrial development every year, and set up guidelines based on the most up-to-date information for industrialists. Became the Ministry of Economy (METI) in 2001 to provide government leadership and assistance to increase industrial productivity. 2) The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) (1959) was set up to promote and expand foreign market of Japanese products. The government has regulations to control the import of manufactured goods and the quota and tariffs systems on imported good help protecting the local industries. Subsidies and low-interest loans are provided to the industrialists, and financial support is given for projects on researches and development. Japan government also invested lots of money in technological development of heavy industry; they’ve established many scientific institutes and research centers. Science cities are built for high technology industries. Tsukuba near Tokyo and Keihanna are examples. There’re still other factors affecting Japan’s industry. Positive factors 1) High quality work force. Good education system smooths the implementation of automation and computerization in production. They’re hard-working as well. 2) Development of alternative power resources. It reduces the import of fuels. Nuclear power, geothermal power and wave power are examples of alternative power resources. They reduce the reliance of importing fuels. Negative factors 1) Over-reliance on importing raw materials and fuels. Fluctuations in the prices of raw material and fuels directly affect the production cost; and Japan is vulnerable to disruptions in the world trade market. Conflicts between Japan and its importer affect the development of its industries, and insecure supply of energy could seriously affect Japan’s heavy industry. 2) Environmental protection policies. Heavy industries and power plants are major polluters which cause serious pollution problems on the early stage of Japan’s industrial development. Under the “Polluter Pays Principle”, they’ve to pay for its cost of polluting. Also they’re required to install pollution control equipment and energy-saving devices. All those increase their production cost. 3) Trade protectionism. Japanese products are well-known for the high quality and reasonable prices. e.g. their car are well-equipped and use friendly. As a result, trade protectionism arises and many countries impose quotas or tariffs on Japanese products. And this will affect its export value. 4) Many neighbouring countries such as China and South Korea have cheaper labour costs which lower production cost. Their technological improvements improve their quality of product and so Japan gradually lost its advantages. 5) The shifting to develop high-tech industries further declines her heavy industry. Recent developments - As to avoid effects on quotas and tariffs, Japan manufacturers move their assembly line to overseas market. - The export quantity and value of completed product decreased while individual parts and equipments increased - The government encourages the cooperation of heavy and high-tech industries.

Monday, 8 June 2009

Chemistry – Materials of the modern world

(Crude oil and plastic) (table unavilable here) There’re various kinds of materials around as, such as paper and wood. All products are made by raw materials (extract from nature), processed into product, and their fate at last is becoming wastes. Materials can be further classify into natural material (such as wood and silk) and man-made material (such as plastic and alloy), Different material have their own properties and purpose. Crude oil The raw material of plastics mostly come form crude oil (petroleum). They come from Earth’s crust and sometimes trapped in the rock under the sea bed. It’s dark, thick, smelly and viscous. It formed from the remains of dead sea plants and animals buried under thick layers of rock millions of years ago. They slowly changed to crude oil under high pressure, heat and the effect of bacteria. They distributed in many places in the world. We use oil rig to get the crude oil if it’s found under sea bed. The oil is then carried by pipelines or vehicles to the oil refinery. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons with only contains carbon and hydrogen; common hydrocarbons include methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), butane (C4H10) and hexane (C6H14) , which methane is the simplest hydrocarbons molecule. Generally larger hydrocarbons have higher boiling and melting point. Fractional distillation is used to separate different hydrocarbons with different boiling point, and separate them into different fractions. In the fractionating tower, heated crude oil is in gas form until the temperature is low enough for it to condense, them it’s collected. In fact, fractions are still mixtures of hydrocarbons, but they have similar size and properties. Those fraction maybe be further transported to other factory can process into useful product. Naphtha is useful as a maw material for plastics, detergents, paints and drugs. It’s so useful so that it’s also called “black gold”. Plastics Plastics and made from chemicals derived from naphtha. Naphtha can be broken into small molecules (e.g. ethane C2H4). Through breaking down the double bond between carbons, they can from a macromolecule with the help of heat pressure or chemicals. The processes of plastic production include mixing raw materials, applying heat and pressure, adding other chemicals, moulding into shapes and colouring. Epoxy resin comes from the chemical reaction between the epoxy resin (large molecule) and the hardener (small molecule). Those hardener joins the epoxy resin together and forms a macromolecule and the macromolecule makes up the strong and rigid epoxy resin glue. Polystyrene comes from the styrene, with help of some catalysts. During the reaction it may release heat. The properties of plastics include easily moulded into different shapes, easily to be coloured, elastic, resistant to corrosion by acids and alkalis, insulators of heat and electricity, and it’s light. Although there’re many advantage of using plastics, the overuse of plastics will waste natural resources, and produces lots of wastes aw well because they do not decompose naturally. Those plastic wastes may spoil the scenery, block the drains and lead to the accumulation of foul waters, causing bad smells and provide a breeding place fir mosquitoes and pests. Birds and fish caught by plastic wastes in water won’t be able to find food and may die due to suffocation if they swallow the wastes. The two ways to treat with those wastes is to put them into landfill sites or by incineration. However, burning plastics gives out lots of toxic substances and carcinogens, so that most plastic is put into landfill sites in Ta Kwu Ling, Tuen Mun and Tseung Kwan O. But still, plastic will not be decomposed and usually are bulky, once they’re buried; they stay nearly forever and take up lot of space. It’s expected that all landfill sites will be used up in 2020. There’re several possible solutions to the environmental problem of the overuse of plastics: 1) The 4Rs – Recycle, reuse, reduce and replace. When plastic is put into recycling bin and is collected, it’ll be sorted into different kind of plastic referring to the plastic code, and transport to the corresponding recycling plant. After removing the dirt and impurities, it’s grinded into powders, melted and moulded into new products. The above process is the recycling period of plastics. However, recycling industry still faces lots of problem like the high cost of land and man power, as well as the difficulties to sort different plastic. Thus some plastic is transported to mainland and other countries to finish the recycling process. 2) Degradable plastics – Some plastics can be decomposed under sunlight (photodegradable plastic) and by micro-organisms (biodegradable). Note that photodegradable plastics will become debris under sunlight and can be decomposed by micro-organisms. It’ll finally becomes CO2 and water.

Sunday, 7 June 2009

Carol的一萬字~Part 10(III)

我笑道,「如果我不願意呢?」其實我不是不想來混車隊,說這句也只是想試一下她。 「沒辦法,只好找別的位置給你,然後另外找人回來。」紫欣擺了擺手,無奈道,「不過,如果你要拒絕的話,那就先看過這屋子才說吧。這是給車手們準備的。」 眼前的屋子大概有一般村屋的四、五倍大,樓高四層,採用典雅的設計,算得上是超級豪華的大屋。 「你們都住在這裡嗎?」 「不,這間屋是給你的。」紫欣笑著掏出了一把鑰匙,開門後把鑰匙拋了給我。 門的背後是沒法形容的奢華。首先映入眼簾的是在國際比賽常見的特製單車,採用了最新、最輕、最堅硬的鈦合金,整輛單車也輕得很,可以令使用者的速度發揮至極限:同時為了保持一定的平衡力,金屬外層是一種透明的吸震物料,紫欣說金屬內部也灌了一些物料令單車傾斜時較易調整。最特別的是,這輛單車沒有任何贊助商或生產商的標誌,只是在一個不起眼的地方烙上了我個名字和「車神艦隊」而已! 除了這輛特製單車外,這棟房子的設計也無可挑剔。地下劃了個設備齊全的廚房,等離子大電視…… 「第一、二層都是空的,五千呎的空間夠用作練單了;至於三樓你就自己去看吧!」紫欣看看手錶,繼續道,「我們也快要開始集訓了,因為現在距離第一個比試只剩幾天了!」她拿出一張清單,遞給我看。 「甚麼?!?一天單車二百五十公里,長跑十公里,還有數不完的體能訓練?天啊~~讓我死吧~~」 「那你比試當天要是被撞倒、撞飛、跌進海裡、滾下山、被蛇蟲襲擊,又或者換成我被碾扁的話,那你就不要怪別人哦。」 一大串的不堪想像的後果實在讓人不寒而慄。我被撞倒也就罷了,頂多病個一個半月;但是要是傷到紫欣,是因為我訓練不足的話,實在太…… 「放心吧!由我來負責把你train好,幾天下來我一定會把你徹底改造的!」她這樣認真的說著。 嗯,為了她,我還是乖乖地接受練習吧。這個情景,讓我想到幾個歌詞── 我沒有六呎高 我卻會待你好 我會接受你一切的改造 你似美麗城堡 的一個待嫁的女巫 有著各樣法術 一再施法使我迷倒

Friday, 5 June 2009

QES 08-09 3A 通識科

http://apps.facebook.com/sybfdeiltqes-ibgeeex/ 1.[中文題]以下那一個不是3A在「頭懸樑,___ ___ __」所填的答案? 腳放檯 股被刺 股懸針 刀界手 [Hint:有個唔係3A作的!] 2.[語文題]請翻譯「你自懂自這自題自嗎蘇」 你是低能嗎 自自自...打麻雀自摸我就識 唔識 你懂這題嗎 [Norris語法!] 3.[中國文學題] 以下哪句不在3A盧語錄(09年修訂版) 裏? Do you see an object, called “teacher”, standing here? 我想比分你地丫…我向你地求婚,求你答應啦!!(豆知識: 此乃諧音雙關) The company will raise(讀音:waste) money…. Are you a good listener? [係語錄,not毛!] 4.[History題] 以下哪東西與核爆有關? Exploring World History(Book 3) 比基尼 內衣 三角褲 [History-related, not gag] 5.[中史題] 若你找到當年吳佩孚作封面的Time Magazine,可得多少分? 10萬分 1000萬分 100萬分 1分 [當年 = 1918年1月] 6.[Home E題] 壽司的材料是…? 魚生 飯 我只懂吃不懂做 中國人的血和汗 [Chis - related!] 7.[VA題] 潮流教教主盧教主穿過那種衣服在3A教書? Minnie波波裙 加大碼T-shirt T-Shirt,然後把皮帶扣在外頭 透視 [common sense...] 8.[3A歷史題] 當Miss Choy見到Eric Wong在Listening抄Suri時,她對Eric Wong說了甚麼? No Cheating! 你抄都抄個好D嫁啦! 哎呀…你禁叻…唔洗抄人啦 比0分你呀啦 [common sense XD] 9.[通識題] 以下哪是蔡Sir兒子的花名? 蕃茄 薯仔 牛肉 通菜 [通~菜~牛~肉~剁爛!] 10.[通識題] 誰發表過「若日本堅持日軍當年是『進入』南京,那強姦不都可改作『進入』了嗎? 」的大膽發言? 張Sir 蔡Sir 鮑魚 傑仔 [Well...] 11.[送分題] 誰是3A的吉祥物? Fat Mon 蔡Sir Hei Hei Julian [XDDDD] 12.[送分題] 以下那同學的花名不是食物類? Becky Elaine Eric Wong Joyce [common sense] 13.[送分題] 3A全村最串邊個? Jane Rachel Joyce Cherry [The composer] 14.[語文題] 形容依份test唔掂,抄3B的,應如何說? 依份test好Cheap呀! 依份test好底線呀! 依份test好低能呀! 依份test好好玩呀,一D都唔係唔掂! [By Ms Ma!]

Thursday, 4 June 2009

Carol的一萬字~Part 10(II)

瘋狂的參觀不會因此而結束,我跟紫欣在其他隊員奇異的眼光目送下離開了這個單車場,繼續參觀。 我原本以為,一支強勁的車隊會像世界比賽那些,隊員、替補選手、醫護人員還有一大堆教練和後勤,可以跟足球隊比一比了。可是在這個村屋群裡似乎沒有太多的人,除了我在單車場看到的三個人外,一路上也只見過一個人。紫欣告訴我,她叫祺欣,外號是「影子殺手」,在車隊混戰似乎有特別的一套,可以讓對手減少對她的注意力,往往到了最後就可以突破對手防線,取得關鍵的勝利。 果然,車隊裡的人都各自身懷絕技,而我…… 轉過頭望著紫欣,她那能夠洞察一切的清澈瞳孔直直的看著我,大概是剛剛所想的都被她猜到了,她說:「我想,只要給你train一下就不成問題了吧~車隊也雖要你這類人,嗯。」 果然是香港人,中英夾雜幾乎成為香港的正常語言呢…… 「那,我在車隊是甚麼位置呢?」 「送死。」 聽到這句我差點絆了一跤!我看電視的單車比賽也從來沒聽過有這樣的位置吧!正式的單車比賽還是頗斯文的,大家不常發生碰撞,尤其是公路和山路賽,要是摔下山就慘了。 既然如此,車隊找人來「送死」是甚麼意思呢?難道是橫臥著單車令對手過不去的策略?那一定很危險…… 看到我迷茫的眼神,紫欣連忙擺手,道:「送死不是這個意思啦……如果這樣擋著對手,恐怕會先被碾掉呢。不過我先說明,我們車隊間的比賽還是帶點危險性的。有種變態的比試方法是兩隊一邊鬥快,一邊要把對手的單車撞倒。當然,」她得意地笑了笑,繼續道:「像我這樣超高速的人,只要能擺脫主車群,勝負就有定案了。可是別忘了大家在同一起點開跑的,要是你在擺脫主車群前就被撞倒了呢?被撞倒的人就會被看成輸家,就算他所屬的車隊最後勝出,榮譽也沒有他的份。像我這種『技術型』的人,大多都不禁撞,要是車底被剷起就玩完了。所以我們才需要人保護啊。」 我才不會相信眼前這個看似嬌弱的女孩在單車上需要保護,只是「保護」的工作一定會更危險……

Monday, 1 June 2009

1-6-09

生日過去。 IMO prelim過去。 五月過去。 正所謂「木綿花開考試來」,那「唔讀書真不應該」 大家也在準備吧? ======================================== Listening……我不介意那是播快,播慢 炒了就炒了 但,你說最高分很高分,所以不難,傻了嗎??? 你給F.3一份CE A-maths卷,我可以做到滿分,對F.3來說,淺嗎??? 痛恨超越了「串人」界線的人 為了保護自己將歪理蓋上去 唉