## Saturday, 26 December 2009

### 26-12-09

Happy boxing day! 用了TeXnicCenter打pdf, 真係好令~ 目前rewrite緊我篇Basic Algebraic Skills 目前框架為 1)Polynomial -factorizing, identity *skill of substitution (Intro) 2)Fucntion -degree, domain *sequences (Intro) 3)Equation -linear -quadratic analysis ->sum and product -complex numbers -eliminating terms -beyond quadratic 4)Sequences -Recursive -characteristic equation -chain function 5)Function revisited -rational function -root function -logarithm -Absolute function 6)Inequality -solving -The sum and product sign -AM-GM Ineq. -Triangular Ineq. 7)Algebraic Trigon -Co-goem system -Definition and extention of trigon function -Complex number ion Trigon mean -Application 8)Common Technique in Olympiad Mathematics -assumption of extreme value

## Friday, 25 December 2009

### Merry Christmas!

HKCEC。 今天的電玩展終於完結。Cos players身上的布料依舊的少，龍友相機的閃光依舊的猛。同時舉辦四個大型展覽的會展，從裡面往外一看：港灣道一排街燈照耀著下方數不清、滿載而歸的人(也許節目還沒完呢)；再往外看是天星小輪，在燈飾的襯托下成為海面的主角。對岸的燈飾有如百花齊放，教人目不暇給，用錢堆出來的璀璨竟也可能給人溫暖的感覺。 龍友發動了總攻勢，拉(拐？)著十個Cosers少女走了，其他同行自然不甘寂寞，紛紛尋歡渡佳節。會展頓時變靜了。 「我走了。」少女吐出一句話。 「嗯。」我低著頭應道。 天星小輪彷彿被六十八年的子彈打中了，在不大的風浪中搖得特別的厲害。不，那時是「黑色聖誕」，今天是個溫暖的聖誕，我－－ 十二下鍾聲隱約傳來，把我從思緒中拉回來。眼前的她早已不見縱影。 眼前的夜景是那麼的華麗。腦海中的她是那麼的悅目。 不知道明年、後年、大後年，還有這個機會一起麼？ fin. 大家聖誕快樂。虛構故事，如有雷同，實屬巧合。聖誕小品，小試牛刀，文筆生疏，敬請原諒 =] 凌晨十二時 楓 筆於會展

## Tuesday, 8 December 2009

### Change of state; latent heat

Three state of matter: solid, liquid and gas. (Ionized gas or plasma is the fourth state.) Heating process: Heat until solid reaches melting point (MP). It absorbs latent heat of fusion and melt (fusion). Heat that liquid until it reaches the boiling point (BP). It absorbs latent heat of vaporization and vaporizes. Cooling process: Cool down some gas until it reaches boiling point. It releases latent heat of vaporization and condenses. Cool down that liquid until it reaches the melting (freezing) point. It releases latent heat of fusion and freeze(solidification). Cooling curve: when we cool down some liquid/gas, the behavior of temperature is: cool down in a concave curve, stays constantly in the BP/MP, after it is totally condensed/frozen, it cools down in a curve again. *In the experiment about cooling down octadecan-1-ol, we can data-logger to record the cooling curve. Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed when a substance changes its state without changing it’s temperature. The unit of latent heat is Joule(J). Latent heat of vaporization is energy released or absorbed when a substance changes its state from liquid to gas (or gas to liquid) without changing it’s temperature.*(1) Latent heat of fusion is energy released or absorbed when a substance changes its state from liquid to solid (or solid to liquid) without changing it’s temperature.*(2) Specific latent heat is the energy required to change the state of 1kg of substance without changing its temperature. The uinit is Jkg^-1 Specific latent heat of vaporization the energy required to change the state of 1kg of substance between gas and liquid without changing its temperature. *(3) Specific latent heat of fusion the energy required to change the state of 1kg of substance between solid and liquid without changing its temperature.*(4)We use the symbol (1) L_v, (2)L_f , (3)l_v , (4)l_F to represent those physical quantities. (Note: L_v means that the "v" is written in the right-bottom corner of L, etc.) We have l=Q/m=L/m=Pt/m. This formula is the way to calculate the specific latent heat through a graph. Important specific latent heat: vaporization 2.26*10^6 Jkg^-1 fusion: 3.34*10^5 Jkg^-1 *experiment of measuring specific latent heat of fusion Experimental set-up: electrical supply -> Joulemeter->immersion heater fully inserted into the crushed melting ice(to ensure that it’s 0˚C) , in a filter funnel. Under the filter funnel there’s a beaker measuring amount of water being melted. Control set-up: immersion heater without electrical supply, ceteris paribus. By l_f=Q/m , Specific latent heat of fusion = energy transferred/mass of ice melted. Note that “mass of water melted” is equal to “water melted in the experimental set-up minus water melted in the control set-up” to ensure that the “mass of water melted in the formula” is about “ice melted by the energy from the heater”. Energy transferred can be obtained from the difference between initial and final reading of Joulemeter. Assumption: 1) No energy was absorbed by the ice from the surrounding air. 2) All energy from the heater is absorbed by the ice. *experiment about measuring specific latent heat of vaporization Electrical supply->kilowatt-hour meter->immersion heater fully immersed into a beaker of water on a triple beam balance. By l_v, Specific latent heat of vaporization = energy transferred/amount of water vapourized. Assumption: 1) All energy from the heater is transferred to the water. 2) No energy lost from heater/water to the surroundings. 3) No water is split out before vaporized and condensed back to the beaker. Evaporation is the process that changes liquid below BP (boiling only occurs at BP) to gas on the surface of the liquid (Boiling occurs through out the liquid). Evaporation in terms of molecular motion: In the liquid molecules moving in wide range of speeds and hence containing a wide range of kinetic energy. When they collide each other, some gain energy and some lose energy. When some of them obtain enough KE, they escape from the liquid and become vapour. As those escaped molecules contain more kinetic energy than the liquid, the average kinetic energy of the remaining liquid decreases and therefore evaporation gives a cooling effect. Condensation: warm air can hold more water (vapour) than cold air. When warm air is cooled suddenly, some of the vapour condenses. Since they releases latent heat of vaporization during condensation, it rises the temperature on the object which it condenses. Missing table: factors affecting vaporization notes available. Sorry for putting so much thing into 2 pages. I'll try to put them in a better way after try to add some extra concepts.

## Monday, 7 December 2009

### Heat and internal energy

Definition: Heat is the energy transferred from one body to another as a result of temperature difference between two bodies. The unit is Joule (J). Note that “heat” is not energy, it’s just a transferring process of energy. Internal energy : energy stored in the object, equal to the sum of kinetic energy due to random motion and potential energy of all its molecules. (Σ(K.E)+Total P.E.) The unit of internal energy (energy) is Joule. Higher temperature means higher average kinetic energy, then the formula of internal energy tells us the internal energy will be higher with the temperature as well. Power : the rate of transfer (energy). The unit is Watt (W). We have: Power = energy/time P=E/t (E=Pt or t=E/P) Definition: 1W=1J/1s=Js^-1 1W power means transferring 1 Joule of energy in 1 second. Another unit of energy if kilowatt-hour. It’s the amount of energy transferred by 1000W (kilowatt) in 1 hour. Its unit is kWh. 1kWh= 3,600,000J = 3.6*10^6J = 3.6 MJ. Heat capacity Definition: Heat capacity of an object is the energy required to transfer by heating to the object to raise the temperature of the object through 1˚C. It’s symbol is C. C=Q/ΔT where Q (energy transfer) and ΔT (change in temperature) have unit of J and ˚C respectively, therefore the unit of C is J˚C^-1 Specific heat capacity Definition: Specific heat capacity of a substance is the energy transferred by heating required to raise the temperature of a unit mass (kg) of the substance through 1˚C. It’s symbol is c. c=Q/mΔT=C/m (or mc=C), where m is the mass. *experiment about finding specific heat capacity of water* Put m kg of water into a polystyrene cup, then insert an immersion heater, stirrer and thermometer into the cup. The power supply of immersion heater passes through a Joulemeter.Assume the initial readings of temperature and energy is E and T and the final readings is E’ and T’ respectively. c=Q/mΔT=(E'-E)/m(T'-T) Note that immersion heater should be fully immersed into the water to ensure that all energy from the heater is transferred to the water. Assumption: 1) No energy lost from the water to the surrounding air/cup. 2) No energy lost from the heater to the surrounding air. 3) The temperature within water is unique such that the readings of thermometer is accurate (we use stirrer to make this more accurate) 4) All energy from the heater is transferred to the water (we record the highest temperature reading after the heater is off) Another experiment about specific heat capacity of aluminium has similar procedure. But stirrer is not needed. Instead, a polystyrene tile is under the aluminium block and cotton wool surrounding the block. Also we put some oil into the immersing holds to keep a well thermal contact between the block, heater and thermometer. Law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in a system must remain constant. Then energy lost of an object = energy gain of another object. (mass of a)(spec. heat cap. of a)(temp. diff. of a)=(mass ofb)(spec. heat cap. of b)(temp. diff. of b) Or (heat cap. of a)(temp. diff. of a)=(heat cap. of b)(temp. diff. of b) If the object contains the same substance, then (mass of a)(temp. diff. of a)=(mass of b)(temp. diff. of b) Importance of high specific heat capacity of water (4200Jkg^-1˚C^-1) 1) As a coolants for motors, CPUs… 2) Reduce daily temperature range for coastal area. (Coastal area have more water stored with the area. In day, water absorb energy in a more effective way than soil. In night they release energy.) 3) Monitoring body temperature: we release energy through sweating. Moreover 70% of our body is water. We can gain or loss a large amount of energy without a big change in body temperature. Notes available!

## Sunday, 6 December 2009

### Physics unit 1 - Temperature

Definition: It’s a physical quantity that measures the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. The unit is degree Celsius. (˚C) Temperature scale can be defined by an upper fixed point, lower fixed point and dividing scale. The pair of fixed point should be easily obtained and reproducible, therefore we define the lower fixed point as the temperature of pure melting ice at 1 apm (standard atmospheric pressure) and the upper fixed point as the temperature of pure boiling water at 1 apm. Calibration of thermometer (to mark the thermometer) : Put it into pure melting ice (lower fixed point) followed by the pure boiling water. Liquid level is recorded in each case and the separation between the two markings is divided into 100 equal divisions. Each division represent 1˚C. Thermometric properties: of a matter is a measureable physical quantity of the matter which changes along with the temperature. For example, density. Thermometer: a device with measurable property which changes with temperature. Liquid-in-glass thermometer consist of a narrow glass tube, one end consists a bulb that contains liquid (alcohol or mercury). When temperature rises, liquid expands and rises in the tube. Oppositely they contract and fall in cooler temperature. If the length of liquid in the tube changes more in a given quantity of temperature change, then we say it has a higher sensitivity. Clinical thermometer has an extra constriction between the bulb and the tube to prevent the mercury flowing back to the bulb. Temperature in terms of molecular motion It is the measure of the average kinetic energy due to the random motion of the molecules of the object. Equal temperature means equal average kinetic energy. missed table: 1)temperture scale 2)Liquid-in-glass themometer 3)Different kinds of thermometer Available for the .doc file! (F.4 -> Physics)

## Wednesday, 11 November 2009

### 一萬字 Ch.14.2

(Professional sickness.) 回到房子已經是五時的事了。 既然這時進來以後第一次有空，那就應該好好用來上網。 不愧是有錢人家蓋的房子，屋裡的電腦配置了高級的硬件和高速的網絡。 接上聊天軟件，一個個熟悉的名字彈了出來。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：嗨～ 單車baka 說：午安啊。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：兩天不見，進隊了嗎？ 單車baka 說： 嗯啊。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：裡面情況如何？聽說有不錯的宿舍呢。 單車baka 說：每人都有間不少的獨立屋呢，離大路遠一點就是了。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：QoQ，好羨慕好羨慕～ 單車baka 說：不是啦，訓練都很辛苦…… ☆呆腐喵★ 說：沒關係，這車隊不是有一堆美女陪著你嗎\(^o^)/ 單車baka 說：才沒有…… = = ☆呆腐喵★ 說：有就承認吧！ wwww 單車baka 說：沒有。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：哈，話說回來，很快就要打風了。 單車baka 說：對啊……現在那個風怎樣走了？ ☆呆腐喵★ 說：先問你一句，你現在身處何方？ 單車baka 說：我想是大埔吧。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：嗯……颱風艾利克於過去二十四小時快速增強而成為一股颱風，現集結於北緯19.8度，東經119.3度，距離本港六百公里，向西北偏西移動。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：大概會在香港以南近掠吧。大埔以北有大帽山山脊，以南有九龍眾山保護……對著西南方卻中門大開。你們最好還是小心一點。 一陣涼意爬到我的背上。 ☆呆腐喵★ 說：啊！天文台說今晚就會發三號了。我先出去逛一下，你要保重喔\(>w<) 單車baka 說：再見～ 的確，風勢已由微風轉為明顯的東南風，意味著風暴降臨。 明晚我的命運將會如何？沒有人可以預知。

## Tuesday, 27 October 2009

### Economic notes -- three basic economic problems

The three economic basic problems 1) What to produce? (Types and quantities of goods/services to produce) 2) How to produce? (Production methods) 3) For whom to produce? (How to distribute goods and services) Solutions to the three economic problems 1) By customs and traditions (Tradition economy) , e.g., decided by the father or eldest son in a family. 2) In a planned economy, resources are allocated by government plans and commands and people have to follow that in production and consumption. 3) In a market economy, most resources are owned privately. Resources are allocated by market mechanism or price system as a signals to guide resource allocation. Market economy: -Minimize government intervention -Resourced owned by private individuals -Economic decisions made by market prices -Resources allocation and distribution of goods by market prices Planned economy: -Government intervention is common -Resources owned by the state -Economic decisions made by the government -Resources allocation and distribution of goods by government command

Specialisation and exchange 1) Specialisation is a way of organizing production, different people/economics concentrate on producing different goods. Workers concentrate the job they’re best at. Then production cost can be reduced. 2) Exchange (trade) is an important condition for specialisation. Without exchange, then everyone have to produce all good by itself and specialisation can’t happen. 3) Private property rights – A good is a private property of someone if the owner has the following right: - exclusive right to use - exclusive right to receive income generated by the use of the good - right to transfer (not exclusive in all cases) If it’s not exist or not clearly defined, then goods become common property, then exchange can’t be happen so as specialisation. Then, it encourages non-price competition such as violence. If it’s clearly defined, then buyers can obtain good if the buyers can pay a certain price. Resources can be allocated to those who place the highest value on them. Positive statements talk about facts, no value judgments, some of them are refutable. Normative statements is about what should be, its about value judgment. Economic is a social science and we use scientific methods to develop theory. i.e., economics is positive.

### Economics Note -- What is economics?

(Hi there. In this year I can only type notes on economics, Physics, Chemistry, probably some maths technique and LS passage.) (graph skipped.)

Opportunity cost: Highest-valued option forgone (cost of the best alternative use) Rules: 1) We only count the highest-valued option forgone, i.e., only one option is counted as cost. 2) No other (possible) choice implies no cost. 3) Cost change if and only if value of highest-valued option forgone changed, i.e., change of value on other alternatives or the chosen options will not change the cost. 4) Full cost = money cost (money spent) + non-money cost (resources spent other than money). Time cost can be monetary (in terms of income forgone) or non-monetary (in terms of another activity forgone). 5) Option considerable for cost is the option available at the moment. Paid in the past will not be counted,

Bad: We don’t desire / prefer less to more Good: We desire / prefer some to none Economic (or scarce) good: Available quantity can’t satisfy all human wants for it. Human are willing to pay for it. More of them is preferable. Free Good: Available quantity can satisfy all human wants. No one is willing to pay for it. More of them is not preferable, we only get the amount we need.

Note that free good must be free of charge, but good that is free may not be free good. Production is the process that transforms resources to goods and services. Factor of production: 1) Labour is a type of human resources. They earn wages and work for production. 2) Entrepreneurship (entrepreneur) is to organize production, making decisions and bearing risk. They earn profits for risk-taking. 3) Capital is a type of man-made resources. It is used to help production. Capital owners earn interests by providing capital. 4) Land is a type of natural resources. Land owners earn rents by providing natural resources for production. Consumption – activity to satisfy human wants. Both present and future consumption are economic goods (prefer more), since we are impatient (earlier time preferences), present consumption has a higher value than future consumption. Therefore people are willing to pay more for earlier consumption. They may borrow money and repay the money plus the interest. Therefore for a borrower, interest is the cost of earlier availability of goods or resources. They pay extra interest for earlier consumption. For a lender, interest is the compensation for deferring consumption of goods (or use of resources). They scarified money in the present and get more in the future. Then, interest rate shows the cost of earlier consumption. Flow of economic activities Firms – unit of production Household – unit of consumption Real flow (flow of goods and services including factor services): Household providing factor services to factor market and to the firms, then the firms provide goods and services to the household through product market. Money flow (money income and expenditure): For household, they provide factors services and get factor income. They pay for good and services from firms. For firms, they pay for factor services, and earn revenue from providing goods and services to household. Their exchange on good, service, income and expenditure through the factor market and product market, also household and firms are inter-related. Macroeconomics and microeconomics Microeconomics is the study on behavior of individual economic units. Macroeconomics is the study of the performance of an economy as a whole.

## Friday, 16 October 2009

### 一萬字 Ch.13

「也不是那麼可怕啦～只不過打風踩單車比較危險，加上以前真的死過人，所以才會有這個名字嘛。」 「那，比賽會何時開始？」 「按例是一號風球掛起後的第二個晚上。」 「……為甚麼要第二晚？那不是更大風嗎？」 「大風才更好玩嘛。」 「……」 對話結束便時一課比較趕的集訓。跟昨天的訓練不同，集訓要練習的技巧更多。到現在為止，我也許還沒見過紫欣的真正實力。原因是，她今天做出了一堆花式出來，除了目瞪口呆的我外，其他的隊員只是顯出一副稀鬆平常的樣子，彷彿那些花式每天都會見十遍八遍那樣……看來我還沒接受到面前的少女是單車天才這個事實。 「喂！」 一聲清脆的叫聲響起，打亂了我的思緒。 「如果你不好好看著和練習的話，明晚的比試就真的會變成死亡遊戲了哦！」 「啥？」 「因為，在打風的環境下沒有花式的人就是在玩命。」我這才意識到紫欣正在叉著腰，生氣地瞪著我。 「對，對不起……」我垂下了頭。 「……我還是再示範一次好了。」 她騎上單車，做出了個幾乎完美的花式。在一段加速後，她把前輪停在半空，但同時後輪仍能推動單車前進，她自轉一圈後衝往牆壁──前輪沿牆壁滾動──優美的完成了一個凌空翻騰。 「你覺得這招厲害嗎？」 「還好啦，不過這只些在打風時有用嗎？」 她笑了笑道：「你試試就知道了吧～反正當你要隨機應變時都有機會要用啦。」 …… 就這樣，所謂的集訓就打打鬧鬧地結束了。 雖然我說不出這裡正確的地理位置，不過大約是大埔吧。大埔雖然不屬離島，但往往有「市區春江鴨」的作用。也就是說，大埔變得當風意味著市區的風勢會逐漸增加，所以大埔會不會吹持續的強風也反映了發出「三號波」的可能性。 走出體育館，外面仍是一片平靜，完全沒有要打風的感覺；陽光普照、萬里晴空彷彿在嘲笑著這個無理的一號風球。 這對我反而是一個警示。 真的是萬里晴空嗎？ 當熱帶氣旋離香港一段距離時，香港就會受到其下沉氣流影響變得悶熱；但當熱帶氣旋更接近香港時，天氣便會迅速轉壞，狂風也變得明顯。 「一號風球掛起後的第二個晚上。」她是這樣說的。 也就是說，一號發出後的約四十小時。 四十小時，熱帶氣旋能走多遠呢？慢的話，可能兩天後還是一號；快的話如果熱帶氣旋時連十六、七公里，那，四十小時後就幾乎是最接近的時間了。 級數不弱的熱帶氣旋只要在香港以南掠過，便可以發出八號…… 情況不太樂觀呢。

fin.

## Saturday, 29 August 2009

### Ch. 2.3 RPG的數值系統

h在此簡介RPG式的魔法，並請不要用科學角度觀賞，亦不要認真對待。 首先是元素魔法。依照古希臘哲學，存在火、水、風、土四元素。這四元素存於大氣，而魔法就是元素聚集的效應。另一個解釋為召喚出元素並使喚其作出反應，這個系統中元素可以被收容，但不存在於大氣。 魔法師級數上的分別在於使用魔法的純熟度，以及可以使喚元素的多少。當然也關係到其反應能力和戰鬥力。通常也分為低級、中級和高級(魔道士級別，再上去叫作魔導士和魔導師，然後就是禁咒師。禁咒師就是指可以使用禁咒的人，而禁咒就是禁忌的意思。 所謂的光明魔法和黑暗魔法，都是「借助其他種族」所施放出來的力量。 大家看了那麼多，稍微懂物理的人都知道這跟完全脫節。但歷史中，中世紀的人似乎有一套跟上述系統差不多的概念，當時通通被概括會「巫師」或「女巫」(諷刺的是，這些人在中世紀天主教勢力下被視為萬惡不赦的重犯，幾乎每一個數得出的酷刑都是處死巫師的方法。)雖說他們以此為「邪教」，但仍相信其存在。 魔法在RPG遊戲中使遊戲產生極大的變化空間，相應的職業也增加了不少。 故事中的「魔法師」稀有，是因為「魔法師」有「使用魔法的血統」，這個觀念在哈利波特一書也出現過。 遊戲中的職業變化之多是數不完的。但往往圍繞三個種類，分別依賴武力，技巧及魔法。三者互相相剋，亦有職業於兩者之間。以下是一些細分： 武力：傳統的長兵器，如大刀、長劍、斧、槍等，因為古書有云：一寸長、一寸強。 武→技：短兵器比長兵器更要求高的技巧，如匕首、短劍。古書也說：一寸短、一寸險。 技巧：長距攻擊的兵器。例姐弓弩、銃(槍)都屬於這一邊。 至於魔法系，本身亦依靠技巧，彌補武功上的差異，但同時亦可以「魔武雙修」，幾乎每個職業前有都可以加個「魔」字，例如魔騎士，魔弓手等。而純魔法系的也有不小，例如魔道士和牧師。 在此大家可能會問，如何決定不同職業對屬性數值的影響？ RPG遊戲對此通常有幾個做法。 一、有關屬性的增長獲得加乘。例如升級的騎士增加的武力會比升級的牧師的武力多。 二、玩家可以自行配點，配有關能力值時有加乘。 三、玩家升級時有關屬性自動增長，另外可再配點。 四、沒有加乘，純粹招式變化。 當中又以一和四較多。

## Wednesday, 19 August 2009

### Ch. 1.1 P系統

P系統 所謂的P系統是用來描述玩家的基本「資歷」的系統。基本上也代表了角色的強弱。 (簡單的例子：一級的角色是不可能打得過100等的玩家的。) HP(Health Points)，生命值。也俗稱「命」、「血」。 影響：代表角色的持耐力。當HP最大值偏低時玩家便要花較多時間在「補血」上。 增長：線性-二次增長。 MP(Magic points)/SP(Spell points / Special points)/AP(ability points)，在不同遊戲的名字也很不同，包括了「靈量」、「氣」等。 使出「絕招」要用的點數值。MP/SP多數是「魔法絕招」，AP則多指「體技」。 影響：代表角色的戰鬥力和續戰力。當MP/SP/AP不足時「砍怪」速度便會大減。 增長：線性以上，視乎屬性。 SP(Speed points)，速度點數，這也許是某些網上遊戲的特別之處。這是逃走時用的點數。每個回合都會累積，但逃跑時會扣。 影響：被打死的機率。 增長：線性。 PP，技能點，寵物小精靈一作中的重要元素。 增長：不會增長。 LV(Level)/ExP(Experience points)，級數和經驗值。 影響：所有能力。 增長：這個增長未必依公式計算。可能是人手設定。但另一方面公式的增長也有很多種，包括了二次增長(e.g. BattleOn)，四次增長(e.g.新絕代)，五次增長(Osu!)和指數增長(Heat Project)。 分析： 這幾個點數要設定這樣的增長速度，其實是近年遊戲的經驗累績下來的。 假設：為了防止差距過大的越級挑戰成功，只有兩種方法。我們姑且叫很的那一邊叫甲，很弱那一邊叫乙。 第一個，是讓甲秒殺乙，這樣在乙作出反擊前就死翹翹了。 第二個，無論乙怎樣打，甲還是不痛不癢。 第一個方法的話，也許甲面對弱者是可以見一個砍一個，但某程度上會對跟甲差不多等級的玩家不公平。正常來說，攻擊力與傷害值成正比，所以甲要從「扣乙不少HP」變成「把乙秒殺」，所提升的攻擊力，會直接轉嫁到跟甲差不多等級的玩家身上。但這個增加對跟甲差不多等級的玩家身上同樣是致命的。 即是說： 跟甲差不多等級的玩家的新傷害值＝「把乙秒殺」的傷害值－「扣乙不少HP」的傷害值＋原本的傷害值 舉例：乙HP為300, 甲攻乙一下扣100, 甲攻跟甲差不多等級的玩家(HP約1500)扣10。 要令甲秒殺乙，傷害值提升200，跟甲差不多等級的玩家的新傷害值為210，比率從0.7%提高到13%! 所以就只好用方法二了。但要大幅提升防禦/速度也對跟甲差不多等級的玩家不公平。所以唯一方法就是提高HP了。 因此，我們假設： 攻擊*防禦*速度*難度(HP)跟對手HP成正比。 「ATK*DEF*SPD*DIF = K(HP)」 左邊的項比較難搞，並會因不同屬性而有不同的值。考慮到不同屬性的能力值在升級時無論如何也必定會增長，所以左邊的次數最少是二。也就是說，HP至少呈二次增長。這個增長同樣適用於玩家。 考慮到玩家有「外裝」的加乘，而上面等式一邊是對手一邊是玩家，玩家的能力增長大致比怪物高。因此，怪物的HP也要增長得更快，來抗衡玩家。

## Thursday, 30 July 2009

### Untitled……？

upadte again: 6 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #55 overall (Taiko). 15 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #56 overall (Taiko). 31 seconds ago wmfchris has risen 2 ranks, now placed #59 overall (Taiko). 4 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #61 overall (Taiko). 8 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #62 overall (Taiko). 17 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 5 ranks, now placed #65 overall (Taiko). 24 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #70 overall (Taiko). 32 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #71 overall (Taiko). 35 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 4 ranks, now placed #72 overall (Taiko). 38 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 4 ranks, now placed #76 overall (Taiko). 5 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 8 ranks, now placed #80 overall (Taiko). 10 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 6 ranks, now placed #88 overall (Taiko). 14 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #94 overall (Taiko). 27 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #96 overall (Taiko). 30 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #99 overall (Taiko). 31 seconds ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #102 overall (Taiko). 5 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 6 ranks, now placed #103 overall (Taiko). 9 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #109 overall (Taiko). 21 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 5 ranks, now placed #112 overall (Taiko). 26 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #117 overall (Taiko). 29 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #118 overall (Taiko). 4 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 5 ranks, now placed #121 overall (Taiko). 23 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 4 ranks, now placed #126 overall (Taiko). 32 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #130 overall (Taiko). 48 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 2 ranks, now placed #133 overall (Taiko). 52 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 2 ranks, now placed #135 overall (Taiko). 57 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #137 overall (Taiko). 1 hours ago wmfchris has risen 5 ranks, now placed #140 overall (Taiko). 1 hours ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #145 overall (Taiko). 看著來吧！！ ===================== 3 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 4 ranks, now placed #198 overall (Taiko). 10 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 4 ranks, now placed #202 overall (Taiko). 13 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #206 overall (Taiko). 16 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #207 overall (Taiko). 32 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 10 ranks, now placed #208 overall (Taiko). 37 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #218 overall (Taiko). 41 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 8 ranks, now placed #221 overall (Taiko). 9 hours ago wmfchris has risen 1 rank, now placed #238 overall (osu!). 9 hours ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #229 overall (Taiko). 9 hours ago wmfchris has risen 8 ranks, now placed #232 overall (Taiko). 10 hours ago wmfchris has risen 14 ranks, now placed #240 overall (Taiko). 10 hours ago wmfchris has risen 17 ranks, now placed #850 overall (CatchTheBeat). 10 hours ago wmfchris has risen 2 ranks, now placed #867 overall (CatchTheBeat). 10 hours ago wmfchris has risen 60 ranks, now placed #869 overall (CatchTheBeat). 25 hours ago wmfchris has risen 10 ranks, now placed #254 overall (Taiko). 25 hours ago wmfchris has risen 20 ranks, now placed #264 overall (Taiko). 25 hours ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #284 overall (Taiko). Osu!的排名真是好欺負 相比CTB 玩taiko的人真少... EDIT: 12 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 13 ranks, now placed #175 overall (Taiko). 20 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 14 ranks, now placed #188 overall (Taiko). 25 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 34 ranks, now placed #627 overall (CatchTheBeat). 31 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 49 ranks, now placed #661 overall (CatchTheBeat). 36 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 15 ranks, now placed #710 overall (CatchTheBeat). 40 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 6 ranks, now placed #725 overall (CatchTheBeat). 42 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 3 ranks, now placed #731 overall (CatchTheBeat). 47 minutes ago wmfchris has risen 22 ranks, now placed #734 overall (CatchTheBeat). 1 hours ago wmfchris has risen 48 ranks, now placed #756 overall (CatchTheBeat). 1 hours ago wmfchris has risen 40 ranks, now placed #804 overall (CatchTheBeat). 其實1hours ago不能盡錄。 就這樣，taiko破#200, CTB直奔#500...Orz

baka baka~
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@11:30PM

@1:30AM

@2AM

## Thursday, 9 July 2009

### "relaxing cycling" report

Time 9:30 - 6:30 Length 45km People joined 3 花絮~~ 1)「一個鐘學會游水，半個鐘學會溜冰，單車？3個字都識啦！」 之後有人5分鐘識左，有人一個鐘都未識…… 2)學唔識的那位……踩左小小竟然話要轉4輪車！ 不過依然慢過其他人…… 某呀嬸：「唔係呀嘛？！？4轆都捱到吐露港咁勁？」 呀嬸2：「你唔佢推車架？！？」 3)楠：「呀～中左葉子飛刀。」 紫欣：「baka.只是別人剪草罷了！」 wait! I'm not an idiot!! (Cirno's perfect Maths Class~) 4)「你……」 「嗯？」 (收音機：某DJ岩岩好話，"廢話！") 「……」 「你左手……」 「我左手曬親呀嘛……我都知。」 「左手較高波呀傻仔！上斜路啦！」 5)「小心……咪趴街呀~」 「跌低左最多車扁耳仔～」 (音響單車：當晚與你記住流水聲 今晚站在大地自己傾聽~~) 「咕咚。」 某人趴街，傾聽去了。 還好，沒被車到耳朵！ 6)「喂？一陣講，等陣先？」 又一陣衝刺。 「喂？……」 這個少年一手控車一手聽電話…… 「咕咚。」 又一個少女趴街。 「點解人地可以一手控車一手聽電話我唔得ge……嗚嗚……」 7)奪命斜路……警方係中間加左防撞柱。 有架單車卡左係防撞柱同石壆中間，打橫攔住晒，動彈不得。 「哇－－」一架單車俯衝下去，勢既成，不可收回。 「Bravo!」 一下撞過去，只見連人帶車凌空轉左360度，平安無事的衝過隧道。 只是……原本衝下去的那架又卡住了。 8)某人大尾篤見到索女。 楠：「駛唔駛比佢MSN你？」 某：「唔駛啦……我驚……比佢D supporters打……」 ======================================= 又識到new fds 同我差唔多速度的還有一隊車隊 不過當然唔係叫車神艦隊啦！ 各位令仔令女大家好 =D

## Sunday, 21 June 2009

### International cooperation

Hague conference The first Hague Conference – 26 countries met at Hague, Holland to discuss disarmament among major European powers, in 1899. The second Hague Conference – 40 countries joined, in 1907. They failed to prevent outbreak of WWI, but they have set up the Hague Tribunal to settle future international disputes. The League of Nations In 1919, President Wilson of US suggested to form a peacemaking organization, and to solve problems by discussing but not by fighting. It was set up in 2020, its HQ were in Geneva, Switzerland. The objectives include: cooperate with others; work for peace among all nations; respect other’s boundaries; settle dispute peacefully through this organizations; take action if a member was attacked, and set up and accept the decisions of the Court of International Justice. Achievement: It encouraged its members to provide better wages and working conditions in their country; controlled the spread of epidemics; and improved the health services of under-developed areas in the world. Weakness 1) President Wilson thought that members can protect each other by arm force originally, but many countries didn’t want to use armed force after WWI, and thus it’s lack of armed force to carry out its decisions. 2) Lack of support from US which had a strong influence to the world at that time. 3) Lack of fund. At the end, it can settle dispute among small nations, but failed to maintain world peace – failed to stop aggression from the axis power and led to the outbreak of the WWII. It was formally dissolved in 1946 (the year after WWII). The United Nations Britain, China, the US and USSR planned for a new organization to replace the League of Nations after WWII. 51 countries met in San Francisco and signed the United Nations Charter in 1945. It officially started on 24 Oct. 1945. Its HQ is at New York City. There’s two olive branches surround the world and symbolizing world peace in the UN flag. - The General Assembly for all members to debate world issues and set policies of UN. - The Security Council is responsible to preserve international peace and security, and Britain, France, Russia (former USSR), China (PRC) and the US are permanent members of the Council. - The secretariat – Administrative region, carries out day-to-day work of UN. Headed by the secretary-general and as a mediator between administrative region and other parts of UN. (Kofi Annan → Ban Ki-moon) - The Economics and Social Council – to raise living standards and improve economic conditions throughout the world. Agencies include FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), UNESCO (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and WHO (World Health Organization). - Trusteeship Council – promote self-government in non-independent countries. - The International Court of Justice – handles dispute against international law. - Other works include providing shelter for refugees; providing financial aid to developing countries; take care of underprivileged children; protecting human rights; increasing food production; developing education and Improving sanitary conditions. Achievements 1) Settling International Disputes successfully so far. Examples include quarrels among Israel, Palestine and Arabia; forced Iraq to remove troops from Kuwait during Persian Gulf War. 2) Promoting International Cooperation – held conference to solve global problems since 1960s, and worked on international disarmament and banned nuclear and biological weapons. 3) Providing humanitarian assistance – help refugees, underdeveloped and war-torn nations; emergency aid for developing countries. Examples: Vietnam refugees. 4) Improved social, economic, cultural and sanitary conditions in the world, and established the basic rights of every person on earth. It also helped developing countries to improve the public health service. Weaknesses 1) It’s only a voluntary organization and lack of independent armed force→ reliance on members to supply armed force. 2) Lack of sufficient funds. (The US didn’t give money to UN.) 3) Overuse of veto power in the Security Council – Once veto power is used, the issues is canceled. Therefore some countries used this power for their own selfish reasons, and the UN is hard to make effective actions against those countries.

## Thursday, 18 June 2009

### Circulatory system

We need a transportation system to link up different parts of our body, to supply nutrients and oxygen, and take away wastes and carbon dioxide. It’s known as the circulatory system, made up of the followings: 1) Blood, fluid that transport materials. It’s the suspension of cells in a pale yellow liquid called plasma, containing water, dissolved nutrients, wastes and other substances, and make up 55% of blood. (tables of different blood cells missed here.) 2) Blood vessels, a network of tube for blood to pass through. (Arteries, capillaries and Veins) (Tables on different kinds of blood vessels missed here) 3) Heart, the pump to make the blood to circulate the network. Blood flows like this “(different parts of our body)→right auricle→right ventricle→lung→left auricle→left ventricle”. There’re heart strings to hold the valves between auricles and ventricles, septum is used to separate the left and right parts of heart, and there’re valves in the arteries in the heart (the only arteries that have valves) When auricles relax, blood flows in the auricles, when it contract, blood was squeezed into ventricles, and when ventricles contract, it flows into the large arteries. Blood flows through the heart twice (lung: pulmonary circulation and the rest of the body: systemic circulation) to complete one circulation so it’s called double circulation. Heartbeat rate, pulse rate and blood pressure can be the indicators of our health. Heartbeat rate which we can feel at left chest, equal our pulse rate which we can feel it on areas that arteries pass through near the skin, e.g. wrist, neck and temple. It’s about 70 when we’re at rest. Varies of diseases can be indicated in the change of rate, rhythm and force of the pulse. When blood is pumped out, it rushes into blood vessels and presses on their walls and produces a pressure on the blood vessels, called blood pressure. It’s measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). When the heart contracts, it’s about 120mm Hg, when the heart relax, it’s about 80mm Hg, and it’s expressed as 120/80mm Hg. It can be measured with a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer. There’re also some electronic measuring devices as well. However, it will change with age, sex, health condition and the mood of the person. Eating for a healthy circulatory system We should not eat a lot of cholesterol, which always appear in fatty foods. Some of them come from membranes and hormones, and also come from our body. There are some uses in our body, but it’ll also deposits in the inner walls of the blood vessels and hardens the walls and cause high blood pressure. When the deposits keep increasing, it’ll even trigger the blood platelets to form clots and totally stuck the blood vessels. If blockage happens in the cor0onary arteries, supply of O2 and nutrients for heart muscles is not enough, coronary heart disease my happen and heart attack will happen. If blockage or rupture happens in the brain arteries, stroke may result, brain cells which can’t be recovered are damaged due to lack of O2, paralysis or death may happen depends on how the brain is damaged. We avoid eating of fatty meats, organ meats and egg yolk. It’s recommend that we shouldn’t take over 300mg per day. Fats are made up of glycerol and fatty acids and can be classifying into two types: 1) Saturated fatty acids raise the cholesterol level in blood. They mainly come from animal origin and some plant product such as coconut and palm oil. 2) Unsaturated (can be further classify into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) fatty acids reduce the cholesterol level in the blood, usually found in nuts, seed, nuts and oil. No. of red/white blood cells, blood platelets, blood haemoglobin content, blood glucose and blood cholesterol is also indicators of health. We have to keep fit (fitness of body, not the body shape) to have a higher resistance to disease, withstand stress better, react faster, keep a good body figure with healthy weight and fully enjoy our life. There’re several indicators: 1) Body Mass Index (BMI) = Weight (kg)/height (m)2, and18.5-24.9 is normal. Regular exercises help us to keep normal weight. 2) Pulse rate. Healthier person has a healthier heart that can pump more efficiently, and they have a lower resting pulse rate and shorter recovery time after exercise. 3) Vital capacity is the max. vol. of air can be blow out from the lung by the deepest breath, which can be measured by a breath volume kit. Normally 4000mL. 4) S-factors: Strength – the amount of force that your muscles can exert; suppleness --- for us to stretch, bend and twist freely; and stamina keep us going when we exercise hard. Stronger heart and lungs can supply more oxygen to support us.

### Physics – total internal reflection and colours

Total internal reflection By Shell’s Law, we know that the value of sin x can’t be larger than 1. But if one side of the equation is larger than the refractive index on another side, we’ll found that another side of the equation can never equal to another side, and the total internal reflection occur. It’s a “reflection” so that it obeys the law of reflection. For example, the light strike from glass (R.I. 1.7) to air, 1.7sin (angle of incidence) =1sin (angle of refraction), if the angle of incidence is big enough, equation can’t hold. The “big enough” limit is called the critical angle, and c=sin-1 (1/x). It follows that when the R.I. is bigger, critical angle is smaller and total internal reflection is easier to happen. This explained why it mostly happen in medium with higher R.I.. Applications: 1) Views under water – when you’re under water, you may not see the image above water if the angle of incidence is big enough, and the range that you can see image above water is in cone shape, with the axis from your eyes, perpendicular to the water surface. (This is because the angle of incidence is limited.) 2) Periscope – If we use glass with enough big R.I.(bigger than 1.5, usually, is enough), we can make two 45-90-45 triangular prisms to reflect light just like plane mirrors. 3) Diamond – it’s so bright because it’s R.I. is too high (above 2) such that all light (especially after process) will be reflected back. 4) “Cat’s eye” in front of the car uses the same rule to give out strong light. Optical fibres Optical fibre is a tube-like device which can transmit light. It's made by glass and some other material, layer by layer. Since total internal reflection always occur inside the tube, and the tube can be bent into a certain angle, it can transmit light in the curved path. There is various application of optical fibre. The most important use is the usage on telecommunication services. Comparing with the traditional wire, it's much cheaper since the traditional wire uses a lot of copper. Even the material cost is more expensive than the production cost of optical fibre considering the same volume. Another important use is endoscope for surgery. Colours When a narrow white light passes through a triangular (△ shape) glass prism, it will changed into a fan of colours, from the top to bottom; red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and purple. This band of colours is called the colour spectrum, and we say that it is the dispersion of the white light. One of its applications is the rainbow. After raining, the air is full of small water droplets. They refracted (twice; in and out the water droplets), reflected (total internal reflection within the water droplets) and disperse the sun light to colour spectrum into our eyes. White light is the mixture of three primary coloured lights, red, blue and green. They can produce all colours. Red and blue produces magenta, red and green produces yellow, blue and green produces cyan, and all three together produce white light. Colour televisions produces different colours on the TVs by giving signals to three phosphor dots inside the TV and give out red, blue and green colours. We sense colours also because the three types of cones cells and receive the three kind of primary coloured lights. Those who do not have enough cones cells is called to have colour blindness, and it’s inherited and can’t be corrected. Those who have defect on all three types of cones cells are called total colour blindness. We see object because they reflect that light to us. For example, apples reflects red light to us. Other lights will be absorbed (and turned into heat energy). Another example is that white object reflects everything to us and thus we see it’s white, which is the mixture of red, blue and green light. “The object with colour N, shined by colour X, will reflect light that N and X contains commonly and absorb the remaining part.” E.g. When a cyan object shined by yellow light, it will reflect green light (which cyan and yellow contains commonly) and absorb red light (the remaining part of yellow.) Colour filters are used to let certain lights to pass through and absorb the remaining light. “The colour filters with colour N, shined by colour X, will let light that N and X contains commonly to pass through, and absorb the remaining part.” The function between a normal object and a colour filter a nearly the same, but colour filters is designed to let light to pass through it.

### 抗日、內戰及中華人民共和國歷史

(例如關於滇緬路)

54年9月通過中華人民共和國憲法，規定中國是以工農聯盟為基礎的人民民主國家，各族平等相處、全國人民代表大會為最高機關；毛澤東為主席，劉少奇為全國人大常委會委員長、周恩來為國務院總理。57年進行整風運動，容許提出批評意見，毛提出百家齊放、百家爭嗚的基本(雙百)方計，但他又認為他們批評共產黨政策是蓄意攻擊其領導，指他們為右派，變成反右派鬥爭，結果不少上被安上「反黨反社會主義」。次年推行第二個五年計劃，提出社會主義建設總路線，分別為總路線──鼓足幹勁，力爭上游，多快好省地建設社會主義；大躍進──訂高指標，「全民大煉鋼」，用土高爐，行土法煉鋼，農業實行深翻土地，高度密植，宜揚高產田(虛報產量)。人民公社──將農業生產合作社改組合併以成立人民公社；行集體所有制，它又分為三級，公社、生產大隊和生產隊，按勞取酬。但三面紅旗脫離現實，蘇聯又與其交惡，撤走專家和授助，59至61年出了三年饑荒。

59年第二屆全國人民代表大會上劉少奇取代毛成為國家主席，毛仍為黨主席。劉和鄧小平進行較為實際調整工作，62年經濟有所恢復。 由於毛澤東的三面紅旗使其聲望受損，而劉少奇實行三自一包，即自留地、自由市場、自負盈虧和包產到戶，被認為是資本主義復辟，使毛不滿，他亦不承認其失誤，同時想收回失去的權力。62年之後，他不斷強調社會有階級鬥爭，黨內也出現「走資本主義道路的當權派」於是在66年發動文革。

66年5月16日，中共發出毛制定的中國共產黨中央委會員通知，成立中央文革小組，目標為整肅黨內的走資派和資產階級反動學術權威。毛亦親自寫了炮打蝨令部的大字報。文革開始後不久，清華大學附中率先組成紅衛兵，全國仿效，毛先後八次接見紅衛兵。他們借「破四舊、立四新」(思想、文化、風俗、習慣)，到處批鬥和銷毀文物，還自稱遵照毛「造反有理」來做。 67年起各地革命造反派奪取地方各級黨和政府領導權，另組革命委員會。次年劉少奇終被鬥下台。林彪取代劉成為接班人後急欲成為國家主席，引起毛的反感。 71年他發動政變事敗墜機於外蒙古，周恩來接手主持中共中央日常工作。江青、張春橋、姚文元和王洪文結成四人幫攻擊周恩來，希望得到實際權力。

76年1月周恩來去世，由鄧小平接任，他著手改正文革偏向；同年清明發生民眾悼念周恩來、抨擊文革的天安門事件，鄧小平再被罷黜。同年9月，毛澤東死。華國鋒在軍權的葉劍英等支持下逮捕四人幫，繼任中共中央主席，文革至此結束。 鄧小平後來取代華國鋒，又推動四個現代化(農業、工業、國防、科技)，對內廢除人民公社，在城市擴大企業自主權，建立社會主義市場經濟體制。對外亦在深圳、珠海設經濟特區，在上海、廣州等多個沿海港口城市設沿海經濟開放區。

80年代以來工農業均有大幅進展，解決了溫飽問題；03和05分別發射神舟五和六號載人飛船。不過改革期間也出現通脹加虧、貧富懸殊擴大、幹部貪污腐化，期間89年民眾悼念前中共中央總書記胡耀邦時觸發反貪污、反官倒活動，軍方於6月4日出動坦克鎮壓，屠殺市民，因此又被稱為六四事件。 另外國營企業的低效益和腐敗亦受到批評。97年鄧小平去世後江澤民、朱鎔基相繼接任，03年由胡錦濤任國家主席，溫家寶任國務院總理。 其外交堅持五項原則：互相尊重領土和主權完整；互不侵犯；不干涉他人內政；平等互利和和平共處。到06年中國已有180個國家與中國建立外交關係，71年取代民國在聯合國的合法席位，成為安理會五個常任理事國之一；01年加入世貿和取得08年夏季奧運會主辦權。現時中國已在世界有舉足輕重的地位。 49年國民黨遷台後與對岸呈長期對立。75年蔣介石去世，總統先後由嚴家淦、蔣經國和李登輝出任。00年起陳水扁成為總統，但他被揭分涉及貪污舞弊案，民眾發起反貪腐倒扁大合動。台灣於50年代實行土地改革，60年代實行9年免費教育、70年代後成為亞州四小龍之一。79年元旦共產黨對台發表告台灣同胞書，建議三通(通商、通航、通郵)，80年代初又提出一國兩制。93年4月，共產黨派海峽兩岸關係協會會長汪道涵和海峽交流其金會董事長辜振甫在新加坡會談，簽署多項協議；03年歷史性通航；05年國民黨和親民黨主席連戰和宋楚瑜先後到大陸訪問胡錦濤。台灣在李登輝時強調雙方是特殊的國與國關係；陳水扁時提出一邊一國論、去中國化，推行台獨，表示台灣是個主權獨立的國家。

(最後一段只是從教科書整理而得。是否政治正確，則見人見智了。)

## Tuesday, 16 June 2009

### 16-6-09

612事變後，Geog、中文相繼失守 F3係英文試卷苦戰一個半鐘後撤退，對C國來說是迎頭一擊!! C國決定實行GE大屠殺，保守估計至少有30分被屠殺…… 史稱「GE大屠殺」。 在豬流感加強侵港下，F3革命軍未能成功圍剿composition 隨著革命軍退守數學戰區，戰果到底如何……？ 請看下回分解。

## Monday, 15 June 2009

### 五四運動及國共合作

1927年4月國民黨宣佈「清黨(內共產勢力)」，大規模逮捕、殺害共產黨員，在南京另立政府；以汪精衛為首的武漠政府仍與共產黨合作，史稱寧(南京)(武)漢分裂，北伐中途停頓。後來武漢政府於1927年7月召開「分共會議」，正式與共產黨決裂，兩個政府復合，定都南京，史穩寧漢復合。

1927年8月，周恩來、朱德率領北伐軍中三萬多士兵在南昌起事失敗；9月毛澤東率領北伐軍一部及農民武裝共八千人，在湖南發動秋收暴動，進攻長沙失敗。毛澤東於是帶餘部到井岡山，成為首個農村根據地。次年4月朱德亦率餘部會合毛澤東，組成紅軍，其後多達十多萬人，在贛南、閩西開闢基地，成為後來的基礎。 國民黨後來五次圍攻共產黨，頭4次(1930年底到1933年3月)因紅軍以靈活遊擊應付，日本又加緊侵華，四次圍攻均失敗。1931年11月共產黨在打退3次圍攻後在江西瑞金建立了蘇維埃政權。第5次(1933年底)，蔣介石調動一百萬軍隊，配以空軍向以瑞金為中心的共產黨根據地圍攻，紅軍今次全線出擊，硬打硬拚，之後又分兵把守，被動挨打，最後面臨嚴重損失。

1927年日本軍人田中義一成為首相後著手侵略東北。1931年9月18日，日本關東軍炸毀南滿鐵路瀋陽近效柳條溝的一段路軌，指是中國所為並砲轟瀋陽，翌日將其佔領，又分兵侵佔遼寧、吉林、黑龍江三省，東北於次年一月淪陷。 1932年1月28日，日軍以上海市民抵制日貨、毆打日僧為借口進去上海閘北，砲轟吳淞要塞，十九路軍抵抗一個月後簽下停戰協定，允許日本在上海駐軍。 同年3月，日本於東北成立偽滿州國，國聯不予承認，日本隨即退出，後來日本在偽滿州國行帝制，溥儀再一次成為傀儡皇帝。同月，日軍進犯熱河並併入偽滿州國，進兵長城，威脅北平、天津，迫使國民政府簽下塘沽協定。

### 中史- 清未革命以及民國初期的軍閥混戰

1894年，於檀香山成立中國第一個革命團體「興中會」，提出「驅除韃虜，恢復中華，創立合眾政府」的綱領。
1895年，於香港設總部，計劃在廣州起事失敗而被通緝。義和團事件後發動廣東惠州起義，仍告失敗。
1905年他為了集中革命力量，將分散的革命組織(興中會、華興會，光復會)於東京組成中國同盟會，提出「十六字綱領」：「驅除韃虜，恢復中華，創立民國，平均地權」，又解為民族(推翻清朝，解除民族壓迫)、民權(推翻君主專政，成立共和國)、民生(平均地權，解決民生)，稱為三民主義。其革命為後來的事業立下基礎，當中以黃花崗之役最大影響。
1911年4月，同盟會於廣州起義，因消息走漏而傷亡慘重，有名可考的死者86人，有遺骸者72人，合稱黃花崗七十二烈士。