Monday, 16 June 2008

曼狗 (PART III)

1999年歐聯決賽曼聯對拜仁,拜仁整體表現較佳長時間領先更兩番中柱,卻在比賽補時被曼聯以兩個略帶幸運的入球反勝,賽後曼聯球迷在耀武揚威之餘卻把比賽描述成「曼聯比拜仁踢高一皮,壓住拜仁來打」。 碧咸在1998世界杯起後腳踢施蒙尼報復而被逐,英曼咸球迷認為錯在施蒙尼「扮野」;朗尼在2006世界杯踩人要害被逐,英曼咸球迷認為錯在C朗拿度「向球證打小報告」,視為仇敵。然而當C朗拿度在新球季為曼聯入球後,這些英曼咸球迷就即時變臉,將仇恨拋到九霄雲外。 在2006世界盃其間,GAForum曾有利物浦球迷因聲稱「英格蘭只要重用謝拉特,而不需要有碧咸,便能使英格蘭好佳績」而受到一眾英曼咸球迷圍攻,其支持的球會利物浦也受到英曼咸迷以極難看的字語抨擊。 2007年11月,英格蘭在2008歐洲國家杯外圍賽主場輸給克羅地亞無法出線決賽週,uwants有英曼咸球迷指責在比賽中完勝英格蘭的克羅地亞「打假波」;聲言要求歐洲足協調查並將克羅地亞逐出決賽週,由英格蘭取代。 2007-08球季曼城對曼聯賽前,新聞報導指艾歷臣對C朗缺陣感到同情,有曼聯球迷指艾歷臣是貓哭老鼠。(來自http://www.gaforum.org/showpost.php?p=6183349&postcount=704) 曼聯球迷多次批評前阿仙奴前鋒亨利的快射罰球是不道德,但在2007年歐洲聯賽冠軍杯中,傑斯以同樣方式取得入球卻受到曼聯球迷的高度評價。 曼聯球員朗尼不論甚麼情況,都經常在比賽上講粗口,隊友李奧費迪南對此表示這樣有打氣的作用。曼聯球迷同意李奧費迪南的說法,並認為這是球賽的一部份,不會對小朋友有不良的影響。 曼聯球員朗尼比賽時每一次都是「腳去先」兼「唔收腳」,曼聯球迷稱這為朗尼的風格,但朗尼被對手以此種「風格」踢傷,曼聯球迷稱對手為「茅柴」。 2006-07球季雷丁球員踢傷車路士門將施治,GAForum有曼聯球迷認為沒有問題,並說這是「很普通的衝撞,沒有甚麼大不了」。 2007年歐洲聯賽冠軍杯對決AC米蘭期間,因曼聯球員不君子行為及曼聯球迷堅持曼聯所為是正確後,引發球迷天地之歐冠區票選最沒品之球隊以大比數當選。 曼聯對熱刺比賽, 熱刺文迪斯完場前離門60碼吊射,卡路爾慌忙撲救時誤將皮球漏入白界數碼再撈出來,然而球證視若無睹,引起非曼聯球迷極大憤慨,質疑奧脫福球場的構造與別不同。 曼聯球迷曾經大力批評車路士以金錢打造球隊是會破壞足球性質,但曼聯在2007-08年度同樣以頗高的金額購入多名球員,曼聯球迷則稱這為「爭兵需要」。 一般球員在比賽時因不君子行為而直接拿到紅牌應該會有英格蘭足總的紀律研訊,但曼聯球員-如06/07球季,值英鎊30M的李奧費迪南用球「省」中一個老婆婆;在07/08球季,去屆英格蘭足球先生C朗拿度因所對手挑釁以作出報復-並沒有受到英格蘭足總的紀律研訊。 曼 聯在2007-08年度首場聯賽中以0:0與雷丁握手言和,曼聯球迷大力批評雷丁,「雷丁901戰術終于卑賤地得逞」、「哎,都吾知雷丁要吾要面嘅。不知 丑」、「雷丁真係好衰仔 .... 龜縮戰術」、「901仲衰過911事件」、「剩係死守,仲要攪到 Ronny 傷埋,1 分已經比多你啦」、 「打龜縮防守...正一縮頭烏龜」等。 李奧費迪南03/04球季因缺席藥檢違反英格蘭足總規定,按例被罰停賽8個月,曼聯威脅要把英格蘭足總 告上法庭,加利利維爾及部份曼聯系英格蘭國腳醞釀罷踢國家隊比賽,然後國際足協主席白禮達警告曼聯將可能被逐出所有比賽。有曼聯球迷宣稱「全世界曼聯球迷 會出來遊行抗議白禮達,到時英女皇要出來講幾句野」、「白禮達一定會俾曼聯d股東告到甩褲」。 有球迷於網上討論區2000FUN批評C朗拿度 插水,曼迷稱插水是技術的一種。面對其他球迷抨擊C朗拿度插水,Uwants有曼聯球迷聲稱這是保護自己的方法,很多偉大球星都是這樣做,並指這是要很高 技巧,抨擊者學不到這種技巧就不要出聲。另外,GAForum亦有曼聯球迷在回應其他球迷引用youtube片斷抨擊時,主觀地並以不尊重的語氣回覆其他 球迷:「我唔覺有插水喎」。 曼聯球迷經常說C朗拿度和前球員雲尼斯達來沒有插水,但常常批評前阿仙奴球員亨利、雷耶斯插水是沒有體育精神。 (C朗拿度插水片段:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StD3ATRWMb0&mode= related&search) 07年聯賽首循環曼聯對車路士,沙夏在完場前以插水動作博得十二碼,discuss.com.hk有 曼迷認為「冇錯係冇踩到右腳,但唔係插水」、「雖然冇踩到沙夏,但因為對方球員有出腳,比左個錯覺沙夏心裹面比人踩左一下,所以仆到」。(沙夏插水片段 http://img32.picoodle.com/img/img32/9/9/23/f_saha1m_d750dfb.gif http://img27.picoodle.com/img/img27/9/9/23/t_saha2m_cf92bcb.gif) 每 當對隊球員因有優異表現而使曼聯落敗,曼聯球迷會要求不惜一切將該球員收歸旗下。成名於2001年歐聯的原拜仁球員夏格維斯由於選擇代表英格蘭出戰國際 賽,火速被部份人視為拜仁「最強」球員,追捧其23號拜仁球衣,甚至有稱「拜仁只有夏格維斯一個人好波」,「拜仁訪港如果無夏格維斯就無叫座力」。夏格維 斯06/07球季初續約拜仁後仍多次高調表示想轉會曼聯,曼聯球迷無視他與拜仁的長期合約,認為拜仁應該讓他以低轉會費投曼聯,並指責拜仁「刁難」。 阿根廷軒斯引用一早與曼聯協定好的解約條款要求轉會利物浦被拒,然後被曼聯出售至皇家馬德里。曼聯球迷抨擊軒斯是「二五仔」。 曼 聯球迷喜歡妙想天開、胡說八道,除了所謂四大球會,每當有球員因傑出表現擊敗曼聯,曼聯球迷總會討論應否將該球員收歸旗下,更將曼聯與英格蘭國家隊混為一 談,如常常談論「傑斯如果當年入英格蘭就好啦」。而前曼聯門將舒米高說其子卡斯帕舒米高不會為英格蘭國家隊效力,有英曼咸球迷說「曼聯都對舒米高不薄,竟 說出這讓人痛心的說話」,故意無視舒米高對祖國丹麥的歸屬感,更忘記了當年舒米高因薪酬低並不獲提高而產生不滿因而離開曼聯的原因。 曼聯球迷 因不滿其他球迷戲稱曼聯和其球迷為曼狗,故憤而將死對頭阿仙奴和其球迷稱為阿狗。曼聯球迷的理據在於阿仙奴踢法極為粗野,其中前前隊長韋拉、前球員伯金、 柏奴亞等踢法甚為茅,每一個動作都像挑釁對手打架一樣,及前隊長亨利甚為樣衰,因此評阿仙奴為阿狗。可是,對於堅尼的踢法,曼聯球迷會稱其為「勇而不 茅」,對前球員雲尼斯達萊侵犯對手的踢法評為有「智慧」或視而不見,朗尼和李奧費迪南等球星的樣貌亦得到中上評價。 香港的體育傳媒由於懶於自 己發掘新聞,喜歡襲用少數英格蘭傳媒的第三四手資料而不作思考過濾,因此往往慣於對曼聯及英格蘭媒體的喉舌式報導照單全收,常以曼聯及英格蘭為本位報導新 聞,繼而妖魔化其他球會及國家隊。例如星島日報於2007年8月30日,以標題「車路士詭計阻曼聯斟貝碧托夫」報導:「據報車路士計畫以胡禮菲臘斯交換熱 刺的迪科爾,雙方仍就球員身價問題討價還價。表面看來,這宗交易對車路士作用不大,但若真的成事,熱刺便只剩下三名前鋒,屆時曼聯欲簽貝碧托夫便難上加 難,車路士這一招可謂以本傷人。曼聯領隊費格遜看了貝碧托夫上周日對曼聯的出色表現,加上鋒綫傷兵問題,故提出以二千二百萬鎊(約三億四千萬港元)簽入貝 碧托夫。然而,車路士中途殺出,希望以胡禮菲臘斯交換熱刺另一前鋒迪科爾,但熱刺希望車路士能再多加四百萬鎊,交易有待日內達成。車路士擁有杜奧巴、比沙 路和舒夫真高三大射手,迪科爾到來對整體實力幫助不大,但熱刺便絕不會放走貝碧托夫,車路士這計畫來為了打擊曼聯居多。」但是,作為一隊要三線發展的球 隊,有四個前鋒是正常之事。而且,車路士鋒將杜奧巴年尾又會離隊一個月,到時就更加需要足夠前鋒。再加上如果單單為了阻止其他球會買前鋒,而犠牲水準穏定 的胡禮菲臘斯,根本毫無意義。這個報導正是香港記者報導曼聯有關消息的手法之典型案例。 曼聯曾在07/08賽季開季時跌至榜尾二,與榜末的打比郡及榜尾三的富咸淪為護級球隊,但曼迷不斷批評對手「太強」,表示開季一向如是,並說曼聯一定能後來居上奪得冠軍,但聯賽積分早已被已連續多場不敗的阿仙奴拋離。 曼聯球員如朗尼被傳媒影得嫖妓,但是曼聯球迷卻說沒有這回事。2007年曼聯到訪澳門期間,亦有多名球員被影到帶著要付服務費的女伴回酒店,曼聯球迷又說「沒有親眼看見就等於無」。 C 朗拿度、拿尼及安達臣被英國傳媒圖文並茂揭露召妓及開雜交性派對的醜聞。香港有曼聯球迷對此的反應是「叫雞有乜問題? 要怪就怪佢地太出名」、「o的呢係男人通病,咪反應咁激喇」、「有邊個球星唔爛滾呀」、「超!罰錢乍嘛! C朗大把錢啦!」、「打死唔信,以C7咁既溝死女外型,以佢依家咁既地位使鬼比錢叫雞咩,咳一聲大把女免費湧埋黎任佢玩個人突破同插花啦,分明係滿面爆瘡 拿尼既主意(叫雞)啦,叫到黎C7梗係順便玩埋一份啦,好心班友啦,一黎到就教壞C7」、「唔應該罰C7,反而要俾C7獎金,C7令隊友更團結,新隊員更 快融入MU」。 根據非正式統計,會戲稱阿仙奴和其球迷稱為阿狗的都是曼聯球迷;會戲稱曼聯和其球迷為曼狗則是來自不同的球會。 C7 於聯賽對富咸一役的一記單刀波,飛到成尺高倒地,好明顯是插水,但有曼迷不忿說:「尼美隻手阻人前進呀,跨欄跨過去跌低左都被人話插水,好慘呀點解會咁 架,唔通要撞去尼美度先得..c朗被針對呀」,「但係無可否認呢球佢係無插水 最多係為左避免受傷」。明確地係插水,但被說成針對及避免傷,曼迷果然料事如神,洞悉先機。曼聯都不乏狠毒的球迷:「我真係想佢唔跳起一野跪q爆尼美個 頭」居心惡毒,全無人性。http: //space.uwants.com/attachments/2007/12/04/2981030_200712041550051.gif UWANTS 一名曼迷,於看後"加利仔可能收山”一post及各大會員回覆後,扮演正義角色寫出感想:「"香港怎麼會有這樣可恥的人?」 曼迷居然如此厚面皮。亦有一名曼迷不停用以粗口回敬:「 你XX,唔識睇字咩?我有講過話圍護堅尼事咩,我係話緊圍護d人係到加利仔有機會收山而作出嘲笑依d行為,睇d唔睇d係到扮logic?何來無logic 呢我想問?同埋咩X人XXX呀朋友,你講緊咩X呀?重作啦你XX..係到十下十下~」滿口污言穢語,狗口長不出象牙。

曼狗 (PART II)

英國本土曼聯球迷憎惡的國家隊或球會(德國、意大利、荷蘭、阿根廷等),他們全盤繼承這種憎惡情感,即使在香港他們與這些國家隊或球會根本毫無恩怨可言。 對英格蘭傳媒吹噓的轉會煲水新聞深信不疑。所有被曼聯看上的球員都應轉會曼聯,其原屬球會應低價或免費讓該球員轉會。同樣,任何和英格蘭扯上關係的球員都應選擇代表英格蘭。 曼聯/英格蘭與任何球隊對戰,不必分析雙方實力已可斷言曼聯/英格蘭「必勝」,因為陣中有碧咸(或任何其他球星)。 對 英格蘭傳媒每兩年吹噓一次的「1966年以來最強的英格蘭」神話深信不疑,每逄大賽必將英格蘭捧為大熱,進而鄙夷其他球隊,而當英格蘭敗北則如喪考妣,視 餘下賽事再無欣賞價值。同樣,對曼聯官方媒體、教練或球員「來屆必會重奪歐聯」、「來屆必會贏得三冠王」的宣傳及吹噓亦照單全收,看不起其他參賽球會,包 括成績遠比曼聯彪炳的各國班霸。 曼聯球員犯規侵犯對手而被罰,是對方的錯或球證錯判;對方犯規侵犯曼聯球員,也是對方的錯。曼聯球員插水取得 利益(例如博得十二碼),是技巧高超;對手插水,是欺騙行為。對方球員在自己禁區內與曼聯球員輕微接觸,甚至只要有出腳攔截的動作,都是對方犯規;對方球 員在曼聯禁區被曼聯球員踢到沒有問題,如果對方球員跌倒就是插水。 曼聯在比賽最後關頭反勝其他球隊,是「永不放棄」;其他球隊在比賽最後關頭反勝曼聯,是「符碌」。 英格蘭敗北出局後,拒絕接受失敗及英格蘭技不如人的事實,往往質疑其對手打假波(作弊)。英格蘭屢次在大賽射十二碼敗北,是運氣欠佳;其他球隊射十二碼得勝,是毫不光彩。 對英格蘭傳媒包裝吹噓的「神童」推崇備至, 對其他國家的新秀則不屑一顧。 將碧咸與其他球星比較時,經常指碧咸在每一方面比這些球星皆有過之而無不及,對其他球星優秀之處必予抹煞之或視若無睹,並吹噓碧咸應該當選世界及歐洲足球先生。 認 為碧咸的射罰球技術(慣稱「七旋斬」或「碧咸式罰球」)古往今來世界第一,對其他射罰球好手皆不放在眼內。更把碧咸當年對温布頓的半場吊射及世界杯外圍賽 對希臘的入球神話化,其他球員踢出同類的球則視若無睹。2003年起碧咸接連射十二碼宴客出醜, 認為只是草地問題,甚至有陰謀論指是對手在十二碼點附近做手腳的詭計。 (女球迷常見口吻)我認為這場比賽曼聯會贏, 因為碧咸/C朗靚仔。 反曼高潮及香港極端曼聯球迷惡行舉隅 著名評述員何輝曾在直播節目中批評曼聯表現,其後受言論壓力及擔心其人身安全,而要公開向曼聯球迷道歉。 商台DJ Marco 曾在某節目中批評曼聯,惹來狂熱曼聯球迷有組織地大量去信商台投訴。 商台DJ 梁禮勤2005年1月曾在深宵音樂節目「一切從音樂開始」中的歌曲間場時間反覆評論其愛隊曼聯及英格蘭,而極少報出播放的曲名,令聽眾極為不滿。 有線電視在1999年播出「紅魔鬼的奇妙旅程」等節目吹噓曼聯戰績,又聲言「全季曼聯賽事一場不漏」以討好曼聯球迷,選擇播放球賽時以曼聯優先而犧牲其他戲碼更吸引的比賽,剝奪其他非曼聯球迷收看球賽的選擇。 有 線電視評述員在評述球賽時多次偏袒曼聯球員,其中一名評述員蔡文堅更得到「紅魔堅」的稱號。例如曼聯對利物浦,利物浦球員攻門不入他們會說「好彩」,而曼 聯球員攻門不入他們則會大呼「可惜」。有線電視評述員亦因此受到多次的投訴,唯直至失去英格蘭超級聯賽的轉播權並沒有改進。即使在2006/07球季末, 有線電視最後一季播映英超時,曼聯最後一場比賽對護級球隊韋斯咸,有線派出紅魔堅及韋斯咸忠實球迷馬啟仁(Keyman)評述,由於韋斯咸的迪維斯入球令 韋斯咸領先一球,馬啟仁當然十分高興,但紅魔堅居然「哀求」韋斯咸讓一分出來,令曼聯能以90分奪冠,幸好韋斯咸沒有放水,公平競技,沒有讓曼聯得逞。而 在GAForum的一眾曼迷只好以自慰方式,「見到曼聯捧盃就好高興,已經唔記得左輸波呢回事」。 簡東拿被水晶宮球迷挑釁而起飛腳踢球迷事件,曼聯球迷認為簡東拿是「英雄」。 堅尼在自傳中聲稱自己當年是惡意犯規令曼城夏蘭特斷腳,曼聯球迷認為堅尼是「勇悍」;阿根廷籍的前拉科魯尼亞球員杜舒查令碧咸斷腳,曼聯球迷認為杜舒查是「茅柴」,更因此引致外交風波。 2002 年碧咸斷腳後,蘋果日報隔日A1頭條為「碧咸勇戰斷腳」;其後復出,蘋果日報A1頭條為「碧咸復出鬥瑞典」。報刊介紹英格蘭/曼聯時,動輒以「港人最愛的 英格蘭/曼聯...」起筆,每季亦例必訪問特定的球衣店東主,借其口道出「都是港人至愛的曼聯的球衣銷量最好」,反覆灌輸「曼聯最受歡迎」的印象。 2005 年曼聯訪港友賽香港代表隊,入場觀戰之部份香港曼聯球迷不滿香港代表隊門將范俊業開出球門球動作稍慢而狂噓范俊業,甚至在香港代表隊策動進攻時發出噓聲, 令香港代表隊在香港大球場主場「反主為客」。以本場作代表香港上陣的告別戰、並獲選為本場最有價值球員的歐偉倫在上台領取獎項時亦被曼聯球迷噓。香港代表 隊隊長李偉文批評這些球迷入場竟然對在場上代表自己地區努力比賽的球員報以噓聲。 2008年碧咸隨洛杉磯銀河訪港友賽南華邀請隊。比賽中有英 曼咸球迷批評南華後衛李志豪在防守時不肯把皮球踢出底線輸掉角球,令碧咸無法表演開角球。同樣,亦有人抱怨南華在比賽中犯規太少,令碧咸很少機會主射罰 球。完場後甚至有女球迷在接受電視訪問時表示「銀河讓賽...對南華勝出比賽感到有少少唔開心」。翌日,商台節目「在晴朗的一天出發」的主持指當碧咸主射 自由球時「人牆唔應該跳」,「見到d人牆跳就火都黎」,「入場只睇碧咸一個都值回票價」,更指南華「應該要比人地嬴」。(電視訪問片段 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IktCYAVWhs&feature=related )

曼狗 (PART I)

在1999年曼聯奪得三冠王後,傳媒及曼聯碧咸球迷舖天蓋地吹捧曼聯在該年的成績。然而物極必反,傳媒以類似官方喉舌的方式報導曼聯的新聞,將曼聯本位 化,其他對手則被妖魔化,結果招致其他球迷的不滿。同時,曼聯球迷四處張揚該年的成績,透過不同的渠道攻擊其他被妖魔化的球隊,如以「踢法過份粗野、茅而 無品、賤人」來形容當時主要對手阿仙奴便是一例。 部份狂熱的曼聯支持者巧合地同時狂熱支持英格蘭國家隊及碧咸(原因待考),對其他球隊、球員或球迷皆持輕蔑態度目中無人,唯曼聯、英格蘭及碧咸獨尊,習慣以英曼咸三者為本位思考及判斷。因此這類狂熱球迷往往亦被統稱為「英曼咸奴」。 由 於羊群效應,英曼咸球迷中有部份人將碧咸當作一個明星而不是球星,然而這些人由於對英曼咸以外的足球世界缺乏興趣導致足球知識貧乏得可笑,例如今晚是巴西 對德國,這些人會問:「呢場波有無碧咸?」又例如當碧咸轉投皇家馬德里後,曾有人說:「碧咸會帶領曼聯參加西甲,好厲害呢!」甚至有人將這支九屆歐聯冠 軍、當時旗下已擁有魯爾、卡路士、費高、施丹、朗拿度等巨星的傳統班霸視作爛隊,聲稱碧咸加盟後皇馬才是強隊。 在互網網普及化後,部 份曼聯球迷以「凡是英格蘭、曼聯和碧咸做的都是合情合理,而其他球隊皆是低裝無品」的狂妄態度盤踞各大論壇,不斷挑釁和攻擊其他球隊和球迷,使其他中立球 迷和部份看不過眼的非曼聯球迷開始有反曼聯的行動,以對抗這些狂熱而不理性的球迷。曼狗這個詞彙相信在這個時期出現。 普及化 高 登論壇首宗的賭Jer事件,便是曼聯球迷的傑作。在2003年4月,在皇家馬德里主場曼聯的歐聯賽事前,高登會員和平與愛聲明假若曼聯不能勝出則自切其 Jer,結果曼聯不負眾望,以1:3敗陣,打開了高登魔咒的魔法之門,曼狗這個詞彙亦開始廣泛在這個香港人流最多的論壇流傳。現今經常帶領阿仙奴獲得佳 績,為賭徒帶來兩餐溫飽的高登會員巴貝利,也是曼聯球迷。 近年Uwants據稱是本港最多曼聯球迷聚集之網上論壇,及後在前版主金之刀權力包庇下四出得罪各界球迷,數以百計會員群起反抗不果後將矛頭指向曼聯球迷並將作惡之曼聯球迷冠以曼狗稱號。 英 曼咸香港球迷人數眾多,盤踞香港各大小網上論壇,如GAForum,Uwants、高登等。很多傳媒工作者及藝人經常高調張揚其英曼咸球迷身份(例如李克 勤),潛移默化下令更多人成為英曼咸球迷。當然,在英曼咸球迷大幅滋長時,仍有獨立思考能力而敢於抗拒霸權的非英曼咸球迷亦與日俱增,與之分庭抗禮。 由 於人多勢眾,部份極端曼聯球迷經常向其他對曼聯不以為然的非曼聯球迷持狂躁非理性強烈敵對態度,並往往訴諸網上暴力及恐怖主義,例如以粗言穢語辱罵敵對人 士、圍攻、人身攻擊、洗版、濫開論壇帳戶、到敵對球迷網站搞破壞、放毒、黑客攻擊等等。 本條「曼狗」條目亦曾多次被人惡意刪除,及被人以「令香港曼聯球迷成為全球華人笑柄」等理由要求刪除,以圖掩飾香港部份極端曼迷的惡行。 典型「英曼咸奴」思維 無視一切法規、契約、案例、慣例及道德標準,缺乏常識、理性及禮貌,對任何爭議皆以曼聯/英格蘭為本位作價值判斷及思考,喜歡異想天開及胡說八道,經常與普世價值及足球世界的共識和慣常做法相左,慣於護短,性格狂躁,因此經常向其他中立球迷或評論者開火。 精 神上將自己轉化為近似英國本土的曼聯/英格蘭球迷。當有其他外國國家隊或球會訪港友賽時,會以該隊當中有多少效力曼聯/代表英格蘭的球員為衡量該場比賽是 否有「觀賞價值」。同樣,觀看這些比賽時,對待個別球員的熱情度會按上述標準而有所差異。當觀看曼聯/英格蘭/碧咸訪港與香港代表隊或球會比賽時,會對香 港球隊或球員發出噓聲,甚至對主隊落敗感到欣喜。當碧咸在香港參加比賽時,會批評主隊後防球員不肯輸掉角球或犯規太少,令碧咸無法表演主射角球或罰球。 對電視轉播其他國家的聯賽及杯賽毫無興趣,亦懶於涉獵其他國家的足球新聞及評論。視野狹隘,先入為主對其他聯賽作錯誤的定性,持有偏見而拒絕留意 (例如「沉悶」、「保守」、「入球少」、「重戰術」、「無星味」等),偏執地認為只有英超才有觀賞價值。因此對其他球隊及球員只有膚淺的認識,往往得出曼 聯/英格蘭與其他球隊對戰必勝的武斷看法。 被問及何以鐘愛英格蘭/曼聯而拒絕欣賞其他球隊,往往訴諸「殖民地情意結」、「自細睇英國波大」。

Wednesday, 11 June 2008

背IS note = =

Air and living things total 87 points

1) List the mixture of air, define and state the testing method. (13M)

2) Compare breathed air and unbreathed air. (4M)

3) State fire triangle. (4M)

4) How to test the energy inside food (2M)

5) State how plants make food and the types of food, way to test it. (10M)

6) What can absorb carbon dioxide (2M)

7) State Respiration and breathing. (14M)

8) State process and breathing.(15M)

9) State the balancing of oxygen and carbon dioxide. (4M)

10) State the greenhouse effect. (4M)

11) State THREE air pollutants, where they come from and how can they be harmful. (9M)

12) State THREE things in smoking and their harming effect. (6M)

Electricity 73 points

1) State “electricity source”. (3M)

2) State circuit and two types of them. (5M)

3) State conditions that let the circuit work. (3M)

4) State Ampere, Voltage and Ohm and how to measure it. (13M)

5) Give example for material having high and low resistance. (2M)

6) State short circuit and heating effect. (8M)

7) State Resistor and Rheostat. (3M)

8) Give TWO examples for using Rheostat. (2M)

9) Give NINE symbols for circuit diagram symbol you have learnt. (switch on & off) (9M)

10) Compare parallel and series circuit. (7M)

11) Compare fuse and circuit breaker (10M)

12) State ring circuit (5M)

13) Explain how earthing can prevent electric shock. (3M)

Force 41 points

1) State effects of force (3M)

2) State the instrument to measure force (M)

3) State friction. (8M)

4) State FOUR ways to reduce force. (4M)

5) Give two examples that force is useful or not useful. (4M)

6) State universal gravitation and relation between mass and weight. (8M)

7) State relations between action and reaction. (3M)

8) Which liquid fuel will be used for rocket and why (4M)

9) Give FOUR examples for functions of spacesuit. (4M)

10) How can the spaceship reduce heat when backing from the atmosphere (2M)

Acids and alkalis 78 points

1) State the how acids and alkalis taste. (2M)

2) Give FIVE examples for acids and alkalis commonly use in lab. (5M)

3) State three ways to test thing acidic/ alkaline, test acidity/ alkalinity, briefly explain.(16M)

4) Give TWO examples for acids or alkalis in body (2M)

5) State test for hydrogen. (2M)

6) State corrosive effect against metals and marbles, give examples. (10M)

7) Explain why rain water is usually acidic and when will it be acid rain. (5M)

8) How can we reduce the acidity of acid rain (5M)

9) Explain how acid can preserve food and give example. (2M)

10) Give THREE examples that they used for cleanser and what are used. (6M)

11) State neutralization, give three examples and five use of it. (4+6+10M)

12) State method that dilute them. (3M)

Sensory 49 points

1) State 16 parts (outside, inside and cells) of eye, state them in deatail. (39M)

2) State three reasons for short/long sight, effect of it and how to correct them. (10M)

Total 328 points = =

Sunday, 8 June 2008

Geography notes on second term

Geography notes – earthquake and volcanic eruptions

1) Structure of earth: Crust: outer layer made up by solid rock,60-120km thick and its’ continents and oceans floor. Mantle is the inner layer that made up of molten rock as magma. Core is the innermost layer made up of iron and nickel, it’s very hot and high pressure.

2) The crust broken into plates. They move slowly by the convection of magma caused by thermal expansion, the boundary between plates are called plate boundary. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are mainly found along plate boundaries and they are result of boundary movement.

3) When the plates move oppositely, pressure builds up gradually, earthquake is result from releasing pressure suddenlyearth shake violently.

4) Cracks formed from moving of plates, gases, solid rocks and magma may forced out violently though out cracks, this is volcanic eruptions.

5) Earthquakes and ranked according to magnitude and we use Richter Scale to indicate earthquake.

6) Six effect of earthquake: (1)Collapse of buildingsmain cause of death and injuries. (2)Earthquake cause breakdown of gas and oil pipelineswidespread firelots of death and widespread destruction. (3)Breaking of rock, road and bridgedelaying rescue work. (4)It cause subsidence of land, landslides, dams collapseflooding. (5)Earthquake occurring under the sea may cause giant tidal wave(tsunami) and cause coastal flooding. (6)There are still aftershocks after the main earthquake, also victims may suffer from hunger and spread of diseases.

7) Four effects of volcanic eruption: (1)It release gases and most of them are poisonous and harmful to the health (e.g.). (2) Large rock fragments are thrown out as volcanic bombs and volcanic ash is released also, they buries building and farmland. (3)Hot magma flow known as lava flow destroy and burn everything up the way. (4)Volcanic ash or volcanic bombs may mix with rain water or melting snow and form mudflow and buries house and farmland.

8) Immediate measures: earthquake: send armies and rescues teams to search in rubble, settle them in temporary shelters, give them food, water and blankets, restoring communication, putting out fires and providing medical services.

9) Volcanic eruptions: divert flows away from human settlement.

10) Long-term measures: (1) Use sensitive instruments to give prediction and warning. (2) Use modern technology to make earthquake-proof design. (3)Reducing the pressure of cracks. (4)Land use zoning reduce loss from fire in high-risk areas. (4)Teaching.

Geography notes – farming

1) System of farming: (Input-> process -> output)

2) Types of farming: Types of output: livestock onlypastoral, crops onlyarable, bothmixed. Use of output: feed themselvessubsistence and sold for profitcommercial.

3) South China: small farm, labour input, machinery input, yield per unit of land, yield per farmer intensive farming, output: rice.

4) Australia outback: big farm, labour input, machinery input, yield per unit of land, yield per farmer extensive farming, output: cattle.

Problems of farming:

1) Extremes in rainfall: Australia get less than 500 mm rainfall per year, it’s hard to support growth of crops and large populations of cattle. South China always have typhoonsheavy rain, flooding.

2) Poor soil: In Australia half of land is infertile and in China soil erosion make soil thin and infertile.

3) Pests and diseases may result in crop failure or deaths of livestock

4) In mountainous areas, terrace are common and the land is steep and soil is thin. It’s hard to use machines and output is limited.

5) Australia is short of labour.

6) In China, urbanization happens and good farmland is taken away by houses and factories.

7) In China, farmers other don’t have money to buy machines, good seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. This limited their profit of output.

Ways to solve the problem:

1) Use machines to productivity and instead of labour. Machines can ploughing, sowing, harvesting and even milking.

2) Chemical fertilizers puts back some nutrients back to the soil, Pesticides kills and deter pests, weedicides kills unwanted plant.

3) Development of generically modified crops improve the quality.

4) Irrigation technology supplies water for a large area of farmland and it’s reliable.

The problem of scientific farming methods:

1) Those methods are too expensive that some farmers can’t pay for it.

2) Some of the farmers are poor educated so that they don’t know how to use the methods in correct way.

3) Using machines efficientlycut down tree and bushes to enlarge farm sizethe lost of windbreaks may lead to crop destroying by strong wind.

4) Machine may harden the soil that water may just flow over it.

5) Chemical fertilizers lack of organic matter that used to bind soil togetherafter several time, the soil is loosened and can easily be eroded, also, chemicals made rapid growth of algae in surrounding streams, the fish passing there may lack of oxygen and die.

6) Pesticides are poisonous and people may be poisoned if they eat it, also, pesticides may passed to other living organism through food chain.

7) Poor country can’t afford to research new seed and breeds, GM food are produced by changing/ removing some genes from crops, some people think that it can solve food problem but some think that this may change the neutral environment and hurt their health.

Science note unit 9 - force

IS note unit 9 – force

Three effect of force

- Change the speed (accelerate for same direction and slow down when opposes)

- Change the direction of motion

- Change the shape (when the force is larger than the force that hold the shape)

We Use Newton balance to measure the force and the unit is Newton (N).

A contract force opposing your force is called friction. They happens when two surfaces are in contact, it always opposes the motion of object. They come from the tiny bumps that the bumps on two surfaces catch each other. So that the rougher surface cause bigger friction. Also, when the object move through water or air, there’s friction too, the friction of air is called air friction or air resistance. Moving against friction can produce heat.

Three ways to reduce friction:

- Changing from sliding motion to rolling motion

- Moving object on a layer of air

- Streamlined object towards air friction

- Smoothen the surface (e.g. use lubricants)

Friction sometimes is useful too, e.g. pick up something.

Force of gravity is a non- contract force. It pulls thing direct downwards to the core of earth (or other object which known as universal gravitation, they attracts other objects toward it by their mass, but the force is too small that we can’t feel, force of gravity is only about the planet). The force on an object is known as weight, a weight of 1kg cause 10N force on gravity on Earth, force of gravity on Moon is 1/6 of Earth.

Action and Reaction

- They occurs in pairs

- The magnitude of force is exactly equal

- The force react in opposite direction

Rocket use that reaction by burning fuels to fly, the fuels are liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. They give a clean flame, burning reaction of this fuel (2H2+O2=>2H2O) and a high temperature, so that this is a big propulsion for rocket. There solid grain fuel also. In the middle of journey, the astronauts is weightless because the friction between the planets are offset.

Function of space suit:

maintain living environment of astronaut (e.g. body temperature, pressure, resistance radiation, treat body waste, supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, etc.

When the rocket backs to the atmosphere, it’s rise in temperature by heating effect. It can be reduces by insulating tiles and parachutes.

EPA note 6,7

EPA note unit 6, 7

Law is a set of binding rules by which every person and organization and society has to abide.

Three meaning of “rule of law”

The government must act and rule according to the law which serves as the basis for its legality.

Equality before the law is upheld.

The judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches.

Three importances of law and the rule of law:

Maintain order and security, prevent abuses of power and protect people’s freedoms and legal rights

Source of law:

The Basic Law of the HKSAR is the constitutional document of HKSAR.

Annex III of National Law are applied in HKSAR.

Laws in force in HK before handover including: Ordinances and subsidiary legislation, Common law and Chinese customary law (e.g. relation to land in NT)

The laws enacted by LegCo after handover is the major source.

Some international laws and conventions have been applied to HKSAR.

Law is effective only when it’s strictly enforced, law enforcement body is to maintain order. They are also restricted by the law so as to prevent power abuses.

ICAC:

They receives and investigates allegations of corruption that the complaint from public.

Examines the practices and procedures of gov. departments and public organizations.

Provide corruption prevention advices on request from private organizations.

Promote anti-corruption messages and regular corruption prevention training for stuff of public organizations and maintains regular contract with public organizations to promote good corporate governance and ethical practice.

Wednesday, 4 June 2008

IS notes unit 10,11 form 2

1) Acids (acidic substances) taste sour, fruits contain citric acid and soft drinks contain carbonic acid. Alkalis (Alkaline substances) are slippery. 2) Some natural materials contain pigments that changes colour in acid / alkalis, they are natural indicators. 3) Common acids in Lab.: hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid. 4) Common alkalis in Lab.: sodium hydroxide and ammonia. 5) Litmus: Acids turn blue litmus blue and alkalis turn red litmus blue, if no change for both colour, it’s neutral. (Litmus solution or litmus paper which soaked in the litmus solution.) 6) Universal indicator: they show a wide range of colours depending on the degree of acidity or alkalinity of substances, pH paper is soaked in the universal indicator. pH scale shows the different colour to show their acidity or alkalinity from 0 to 14. Lower value is more acidic and higher value is more alkaline, 7 is neutral. 7) pH meter is as electronic appliance that measure the value accurately. 8) The pH value in daily: blood: 7.4; stomach juice:2; intestinal juice: 8.5, skin: 5.5 and soil: 6-8. 9) Test for hydrogen: burning splint, burn with a pop sound (explosion). 10) Corrosive effect of metal + acid => Hydrogen + salt , (energy release) Acids corrode metals but aluminium resistance from this because aluminium react with oxygen and form aluminium oxide which resistance from corroding. 11) Corrosive effect :acid +marble (-> Calcium carbonate)=> Carbon dioxide+ water (+ salt) 12) Rain water is slightly acidic because in air dissolves in rain water and form carbonic acid, when the pH value of rain water lower than 5.6, it’s acid rain. They formed because air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 13) The acid rain will corroding stone(marble) structures, metal structures, damage forests and make the water be acidic where most aquatic life can’t live. It’s a regional problem that HKSARgov. and Guangdong Provincial gov. joined to control acid rain. They reduce the release pollutants form vehicles and power stations. We can use energy efficiently to reduce also. 14) Acids help to preserve food, they slow down their activities or even kill them. Vinegar is non-toxic solution that contains acetic(ethanoic) acid so they use vinegar as food preservative. 15) *higher pH value can slow down the browning effect. 16) Oven, drain cleanser contains sodium hydroxide, glass cleanser contains ammonia and toilet cleanser contains hydrochloric acid. 17) Neutralization: Acids + Alkalis => Salt + water 18) Daily use of neutralization: Antacid (alkaline) is used for excess acid in stomach, Baking soda for bee, ant and mosquito stings and vinegar for wasp stings, lime is alkali that neutralize the acidic soil. All chemical waste should be neutralize before dispose it. Also, lye is added to neutralize the acidity of glutinous rice and vinegar is used to neutralize the lye in noodles. 19) Strong acids or alkalis cause a burn, they are highly corrosive. When diluting a concentrated solution, we add it to water but not add water to solutions, adding them slowly and mix them when diluting. 20) We detect different stimuli (stimulus) with different sense organs, they sense with their own sensory cells. Eye→sight, ear→hearing, tongue→taste, nose→smell, skin→touch. 21) The parts of eye: Eyebrow, eyelash on the eye lid; Cornea is a clear layer in front of eye, help focusing light, Iris, changes the size to fit the amount of light going in, they have different colours refer to pigments; Pupil allows light go in the eye; focusing muscles help control the thickness of lens to focus image; Lens can change in thickness to focus light in retina; Retina contains light-sensitive cell and sends stimuli to brain by Optic nerve; Blind spot is in front of the optic nerve and we can’t sense light there, yellow spot is that most of the light-sensitive cell are there, protective coat (sclera) protects eyeball and maintain its’ shape. Aqueous Humor(watery fluid) is water in front of lens and Vitreous Humor is jelly-like fluid that behind lens. The light goes with an inverted image in the eye. 22) Cones cells sense colours in bright light, three types sensing for red, blue and green. They used to form colour images (no. 6M), rod cell form B&W images in dim light, 1 types only (no. 1.2 B) 23) Three reason for short sight: the lens stable to be thick, eyeball too long or focusing muscles too weak, three reason for long sight just the opposite.