Monday, 29 December 2008


繼續奮鬥 中文勁煩要背詩 →→中文:未溫過,怕記敘文 英文oral唔好D →→英文,好驚 數學方面易失足 →→數學,careless! 地圖讀到變白癡 →→Geog. Crazy map reading 李鴻章街係中史 →→中史,林伯發功」 Mussolini法西斯→→西史,得啦掛 EPA終極爛gag →→EPA, E for Economy! 讀好書真係唔易 詩詞歌庫逐個捉 to or gerund小心look mean mode median分清楚 斜坡山脊同山谷 Physics 問題夠晒trick →→唔驚 Bio要記Appendix →→好驚D organic farming Chem計mass難過登天 →→煩~! 今年exam唔會淺~唔會淺~~~

trade and financial activities in Hong Kong

Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services between different countries or places. Parties involved can obtain goods or services that they need. Import -- Buying and Importing from foreign countries→local consumption or re-export. Export -- Selling and exporting of domestic good to foreign for profit. Re-export -- Import from foreign, and sell it to another country without processing. Processed imported goods are treated as import and export but not re-export. Visible (merchandise) trade -- It’s the buying and selling of physical commodities. The situation of merchandise trade Import -- Hong Kong lacks on natural resources but the demand on food, fuel and other consumer good is huge because the rapid growth of population and industries. Hong Kong mainly import raw materials, semi-finished good, machines, food, fuel and other consumer goods. They mainly imported from mainland, Japan, Taiwan and US. Domestic export -- Since 1980s, Hong Kong’s manufacturing industry is declining due to the high production cost, immature high-tech. industries and the structural change of economy in Hong Kong. Hong Kong mainly export clothes, electrical machinery, jewellery, clock and watches and they will be exported to the mainland, US, UK and Germany. Re-export -- Since the open door policy was adopted by China and joined the WTO in 2001, the demand of import and export increase while Hong Kong located at the main passage of water and land to and from the mainland with good transport facilities. Thus the value of re-export in Hong Kong is very high. There are various goods for re-exporting and mainly electrical machinery and toys. They mainly imported from neighbor countries and re-export ti mainland and US. Merchandise trade balance = total value of (domestic exports - re-export-import) It it’s positive, we have a merchandise trade surplus, if it’s zero, we have a balance of merchandise trade and if it’s negative, we suffers a merchandise trade deficit. We suffer a merchandise trade deficit since 1990s. Invisible trade refers to the buying and selling of services. The invisible income is the exporting of service locally providing to foreign countries. The invisible expenditure is the importing of service from foreign countries to local people. Note that service provide locally to local people isn’t any kind of invisible trade. Invisible trade balance = Invisible income - Invisible expenditure while we also have the invisible trade balance, surplus and deficit. We have a invisible trade surplus these years. The invisible trade is so important: 1) Invisible trade is the main source of foreign exchange. 2) The invisible trade surplus is huge that it can offset the merchandise trade deficit and have a trade surplus in total. 3) The service sector provides lots of job opportunities (mainly tourism and transport) since the declining of manufacturing industries. The present situation --- The Invisible trade is booming now in Hong Kong. After China joined the WTO in 2001, China further open up it’s Markey and strengthen the role of Hong Kong as a two-way platform between the mainland and the world. The Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership arrangement, CEPA, was signed in June, 2003 which benefits Hong Kong’s service industries: 1) 18 services sector is permitted to access into mainland market earlier, and 2) Residents from some provinces and cities can visit Hong Kong individually, and provides Hong Kong’s tourism and related industry more business opportunities. Financial activities -- They refers to debt and credit, exchange and circulation of capital funds. Hong Kong is an international financial centre with some characteristics. For example, there’re lots of financial institutions→active financial activities. Free capital flow, free and fast information flow and no restrictions on identity of investors. Hong Kong is developed into international financial centre and it has some favourable factors: 1) Stable investment environment -- good legal system and lox tax rate(political stability) 2) No foreign exchange control, free capital flow, and free trade policy. (Trade activities promotes financial activities) 3) The government has set up HKMA to regulate local banking services and SFC to supervise local financial activities. 4) Hong Kong bridges time gap between N America and Europe→24-hr financial activities. 5) Free of information flow and advanced telecommunication tech., facilities and services. 6) Pros on financial industry were provided (e.g. banking personnel, IT talents and lawyers) 7) Hong Kong has a close link to mainland which have a rapid economic growth. This attracts foreign investors to invest and raise fund in Hong Kong The major financial activities in Hong Kong 1) Bank -- Hong Kong has a high concentration of bank institutions providing deposit taking, gold, silver trading and provision of loans. The key functions is that the banks accepts savings and provide interest to depositors, provide loans to borrowers and get interest. 2) Stock exchange -- Companies satisfying some requirements can be listed in Hong Kong, raise funds by issuing shares(open to public), register with Stock Exchange of Hong Kong. 3) Gold trade-- HK is the largest gold market in Asia and people can trade gold at the Chinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society or in the Loco-London Gold Market. There are certain improvements now, including enhance financial infrastructure by utilizing information technology, reform market regulatory framework for sufficient protection, enhance quality of personnel in financial industry and promote cooperation in the financial industry and strengthen the security of electronic services. After China joined WTO, Hong Kong had more business opportunities on services industries. For example, the financial industry enjoys earlier access to mainland than foreign companies, and allowed to provide four aspects of renmenbin services -- deposit taking, currency exchange, remittance and credit-card services.

Sunday, 28 December 2008


書包桌子網誌一樣亂 還好筆記只差EPA, 中史 感謝你們讀那麼久的忍耐 感謝你們翻查舊文的功夫 重設人流後一年,人次快過3000啦~(放炮) 應該2009來之前過到的~~~ 要快點趕稿趕note 30-12帶回去XDDD

Cold War

*The compare between communism and capitalism which is in table form will not appear here. Please download the doc. version. The begin of Cold War “Cold” means no direct military conflict between two superpowers, Unites States (US) and Soviet Union (USSR). Their ideological differences between US (capitalism) and USSR(communism). As they were superpowers, they had large land area, strong industry, large population, nuclear weapon, wealth, stable political system, natural resources, well foreign trade, strong armed forces and worldwide influence. The two bloc -- capitalist bloc included US, western Europe and some other country. Communist bloc included USSR, eastern Europe, China and some other country. They fear attack, thought, nuclear weapon and mistrust intentions each others → Cold War started. 1) Soviet expansion -- After the end of WWII, UUSR started to control countries in eastern Europe that librated from Nazis and become it’s satellites. As a result, “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe and separated the communist countries and the western democratic nations. 2) Truman Doctrine -- The president that time, Truman, thought that any communist revolution threatens US, and providing financial aid prevent those revolution. In Mar 1947, he stated that US could help all countries that felt threatened by communism. Meanwhile in the same year, Marshall Plan was going to offer financial aid to European nations. Then, USSR also proposed the Molotov Plan the help eastern Europe nation’s finance. 3) Berlin Crisis -- Germany was settled into four part after WWII to USSR, British, French and American zone. Berlin is divided Into four part also but Berlin is under Soviet’s zone. USSR wants to control the whole Berlin, so that in 1948, USSR stopped all land traffic from Berlin to western zones and the western provide supplies western Berlin by air everyday (successfully). At last USSR lifted the blockade in 1949. E and W Germany and Berlin were created and lots of East Germany people went into west Berlin. Berlin wall was built up in 1961 and block communication between them. 4) Capitalist countries formed a military alliance Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization”(NATO) in 1949 while USSR and it’s satellites set up Warsaw Treaty Organization in 1955. 5) Korean War (1950 - 1953), after WWII, Korean was divided into N and S Korea. Capitalist representatives: H.Truman (US) and Rhee Synman (S Korea) Communist representatives: Kim Il Sung (N Korea), Mao Zedong (PRC), .J.Stalin (USSR). After the WWII, N Korea “believed in communism” and S Korea “believed in capitalism”. Both country wanted to control the whole Korea. N Korea stacked S Korea in 1950, then US helped S Korea and over US troops went over the 38N line, PRC helps N Korea and attacks back. After sometime, those representatives were affected by various reason(fear of NATO, change of president, not enough troops) and a truce was signed in 1953 but the war has not end until now. 6) The Cuban Missile Crisis(1962), between US, Cuba and USSR. Capitalist representatives: John Kennedy (US president) and communist representatives Nikita Khrushchev(First secretary of USSR), Fidel Castro (Cuba president) US claimed that Cuba is a communist country. USSR wanted to help Cuba and gave some nuclear missile without fuel to Cuba and US was afraid of it because Cuba is near to US. US put troops in Florida, and USSR required US to respect Cuba. After some days, both of them don’t want to fight and USSR agreed to remove missile in Cuba. 7) Vietnam War (1961 - 1975) -- the only event that US “lost” Just like Korea, it was torn into two part, N and S Vietnam and they also want to unify their countries. At that time, the “capitalist” (in fact, people there believed in communist) government had a problem of serious corruption. People in S Vietnam became anti-government. Ho Chi Minh, the president of N Vietnam, attacked S Vietnam. US helped S Vietnam but it’s useless. N Vietnam attacks Saigon underground or via other countries. At last US people didn’t want to fight and in 1975, US retreated troops. The communist controlled the whole Vietnam. After the “lost” of USSR in Cuban Missile Crisis and US in Vietnam War, the relation between the two bloc started to ease. In 1963, an emergency communication line(hot line) from Washington to Moscow was set up. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was set up between Soviet Union, US and Britain. In 1985, M.Gorbachev became the general secretary of USSR and he worked to improve relations with US. He signed treaties to destroy nuclear weapons with President Reagan and bigger Bush. He relaxed control to the satellites reduced armed forces in eastern Europe and refused to intervene the democratic movements in 1989-1991. He was remarkable for the end of Cold War. As a result, 1989, the communist eastern Europe nations overthrown their communist government. Berlin wall was torn down. In 1990, the two Germany became one. In 1991, communist state under USSR declared their independence and formed Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). This marked the end of cold war. The impacts of Cold War 1) Cold War is a chance for US and USSR to extend their influence within their bloc and they tried to gain influence over the developing countries. 2) The European nations realized that cooperation is important in 1951. They set up European Economic Community(EEC,1957), European Community (EC,1993) and developed into European Union now. 3) During the Cold War, US and USSR competed in developing nuclear and chemical weapons and created tension in the international relation until the end of Cold War. 4) After the Cold War, nation started to solve problem through communication more than military conflict and improve way of cooperation. For example, in the Persian Gulf, 1990-1991, USSR cooperated with US to force Iraq to remove troops from Kuwait. US called for the end of Cold War during the presidency of George Bush.

Friday, 26 December 2008

Physics- light, reflection and refraction

Before you reading it, here’s the instruction: This note may contains something out of the textbook but useful, and most inside the bracket. If you’re not interested, just skip them. Necessary information in bracket will be bold in the doc. verision. Also, the table about "light and shadow" and "lens" will not be shown here. Please download the doc. version. Physics - Light, reflection and refraction Sight and light 1) We can an object because the light beams from luminous object or reflected from non-luminous object strike into our eyes, and the messages send to the brain. 2) Luminous object emits light but non-luminous object can’t. Note that those object emit light under some conditions are not a good example of luminous object. For example, “candle” is not a good example of luminous object. “Burning candle” is better. Properties of light -- there are 4 properties 1) Light is a form of energy. (We can found this through the converting of energy in light bulb.) 2) Light can travel in empty space. (No medium, ether, is necessary.) 3) Light travels in a very high speed, 3*105 kms-1 or 3*108ms-1 (the highest speed available, by the theory of relativity.) 4) Light travels in straight lines. (At least, in a normal condition, e.g. normal gravity field) Application on shadows Sundial in ancient China and shadow puppet.. Law of reflection They refer to 2 rules: AD- incident ray; BD- normal which is a imaginary line perpendicular to the plane mirror, CD; reflected ray Angle ABD is the angle of incident, ai, and the angle of reflection, ar as angle BDC. 1) Incident ray, reflected ray and normal all lies on the same plane. 2) ai,= ar Regular reflection occurs in smooth surface and the image is clear. Diffuse reflection occurs in a rough surface and the image is not clear (we can see it in some different direction) The 4 properties of image that formed by plane mirror is having the same distance to mirror, same size, erect and laterally inverted. There are various application on plane mirrors, for example, the use of plane mirror in interior design increases the spatial feel, and periscopes. The refraction The name and arrangement of light rays are the reflection. FE is the refracted ray, and angle DFE is the angle of refraction, af. (The relation between ai and af is that refers the refractive index of the 2 material, n1 and n2, we have n1sinai=n2sinaf.) This explains why if the density of original material is bigger than the new material, refracted ray bent away from the normal while in opposite, it’ll bent towards the normal.

Tuesday, 23 December 2008


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More about food and digestion

The natural and processed food Hong Kong has a lot of ready-to-eat processed food, some of the food additives is being added. Natural food contains no food additives and keep their nutrient. Conversely, the processed food lost most of their nutrients. The 4 major additives are: 1) Preservatives prevent food going bad, example are slat, sugar, vinegar and nitrites. 2) Falvouring gives a better flavour. MSG (monosodium glutamate) is commonly used. 3) Colourings makes food more attractive, some of them are man-made while some are made from natural sources. 4) Sweeteners give food sweetness. Meanwhile, some food additives may harm our health. Generally the food additives allowed by law are safe for most people, but some may have allergic on certain food substances, for example, some people may have diarrhea, vomiting, abdommal cramps after taking MSG. In conventional farming, pesticides and chemical fertilizers are added to their crops. If the product isn’t washed through, they’re harmful to our body. Organic farming avoids the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. They use organic fertilizers (e.g. animal manure), use crop rotation, to avoid pests and diseases and control pests biologically by introducing pest-eater in the field. Food produced by organic farming is called organic food, free from toxic chemicals, and safer to eat. GM food -- the nuclei of body contains genes, if we change some part which holding a characteristics by some virus, it becomes genetically modified organisms(GMO). The food or ingredients of GMO are GM food, and they’re available in whole or processed food in the market. They’re supposed to be safe to eat, there’s no scientific evidence showing that they aren’t safe. However, people are still worrying these years.GM foods should be labeled. Health foods are popular in these years. However, we should consider it’s function and effect, and a balanced diet, enough exercise and rest and far more important than eating those food. Our digestive system The digestion take place in our digestion system which consist alimentary canal and also some organs that secrete digestive juice. Alimentary canal -- In order, the major parts are mouth cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine, and anus. Glands including pancreas, liver, gall bladder. There’s also an appendix-- useless in digestion. In our mouth cavity (which is for chewing/ingestion, tearing the food into smaller pieces), we have 4 kind of teeth, incisors, canines, premolars and molars. Generally an adult has 32 teeth. Incisors are in chisel-shape and sharp, used for biting and cutting food, canine are pointed and used for tearing food. Premolar and molars are board top(but not flat-topped) and molars are bigger. Used for grinding food. The inside of teeth divide into several parts, enamel -- white, shiny, hard, non-living substance, protecting our teeth; dentine, under enamel, bone-like living tissue; and pulp cavity which contains nerve (temperture &pain) and blood vessel. Tooth decay -- the food debris and bacteria in the mouth forma a layer of plaque and it’s sticky and invisible. The bacteria act on sugar in the debris and produce acid, dissolving the enamel and make a hole on the teeth. The acid then destroy dentine, and pulp cavity, finally to the gum and forms a abscess for the most serious case. Periodontal disease -- There’s a layer periodontal membrane. Toxins from the plaque destroy those membrane and form a periodontal pockets. At Last the teeth become loose and swollen gum appeared, bleeding is also easy to occur.

Biology note -- Food and diet

Health is defined as physical fitness, mental health and social well-being. We should have appropriate food, enough exercise and rest in order to keep healthy. The important of food is that energy used for activities and keeping warm, raw materials for growth and repair and substances for maintaining health. Diet is what the person eat and drink each day. There are two types of nutrients: primary food nutrients and protective food nutrients. primary food nutrients means that without those nutrients, we will die. They include: carbohydrates, fats, proteins and water. Carbohydrates = C + H2O It is use for give out energy through respiration in cells. It’s the main energy source. In our body, they appears all places where any cells are found. We can get carbohydrates from cereal which contains starch. Starch is a large form of carbohydrates. It is not sweet but in the mouth, they will be broken down as maltose which is sweet. That’s why the food will become sweet after some time in the mouth. Maltose will be further broken down as glucose. Glucose will be used at once or turned into fat or glycogen which is a large chain of glucose for further use. Glycogen is also called animal starch that it’s usually found in animal’s body. They will be stored in liver and muscles. Fats is the energy reserves and it will only be used when carbohydrates is not enough. Fat gives double of carbohydrate’s energy supplies. It’s also use for transportation because some nutrients are only fat soluble and fat is used to transfer them. It’s also used for keeping our body warm. Fat also act as a solvent of nutrients which only fat soluble but not water soluble. Protein helps body to growth and repair. It’s also known as amino acid. There are 20 types of amino acid where 8 of them can be produced in our body. The left 12 types are called essential amino acid. Children needs a lot of protein because they grow rapidly. The deficiency disease is kwashiorkor. They will have swollen abdomens, weak muscles and poor mental development. Excess protein will be put into urine which passed out and fat stored. Water make up 70% of our body. It the most important component of diet that we can live even a week without water. Although it has no energy value, it has some important use. 1) Water act as medium of chemical reaction in our body; 2) Act as solvent of waste(urine) for us to take them out the body; 3) It’s use for transporting substances in the body, and 4) Helps regulating body temperature through sweating We lost water through many ways such as passing out urine, sweat and breathe out so we have to drink lots of water per day (6-8 glasses) We only need a small amount of protective food nutrients which includes vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Vitamins 1) Vitamin A -- Come from carrot, fish liver oil, fresh green veg.. It helps maintaining good vision because it helps forming pigment in the rod cells in our eyes. The deficiency disease is night blindness. 2) Vitamin C which also known as ascorbic acid. It is good for healthy gums, skin and teeth, helps healing wounds and resist diseases. The deficiency disease is scurvy -- bleeding easily occurs (usually in gums) 3) Vitamin D comes from diary products and fish liver oil, and our skin under sunlight. Minerals help us in different purposes. We mainly focus on Iron, calcium and iodine here. 1) Iron come from meat, yeast and green veg.. It’s used for making haemoglobin which is a pigment responsible for taking oxygen in the red blood cells. It’s deficiency disease is anaemia which no. of red blood cell is lower than normal, easily faint. 2) Calcium comes from milk, cheese and green veg.. It helps building up strong bones and teeth so that it’s deficiency disease is rickets which the bone become soft and bent. 3) Iodine comes from the product from sea(sea fish, seaweed, etc.), it help regulate body growth. It’s deficiency disease is simple goitre. Dietary fibre come from the roughage that there’s plant cell wall which called cellulose, and it cen’t be digested. It make the the muscles in intestinal wall to contract to make peristalsis and push the food forward. It prevent the food becomes bad inside our body and form constipation, piles and even colon cancer. We have various test to test the presence of nutrients. 1) Starch -- Iodine solution (Yellow brown → Blue black) 2) Glucose -- Clinistix paper, originally test for diabetes pink → purple 3) Protein -- Albustix paper, originally test for function of liver, yellow to green. 4) Fat -- Leave a translucent spot on a filter paper (spot test) We must have a balanced diet for those 7 food substances in right amount and proportions and refer to the food pyramid, and eat less of that in the higher level. We can measure the energy value by kilojoules (kJ) or kilocalories (kcal). Carbohydrates, fat and proteins have energy value of 17.1 38.9 and 18.2 kJ/g. People’s daily need of energy vary with sex, age, body size, occupation and physical activity. Over-eating(intake>need) will cause overweight, the more serious one is called obesity, they will have high blood pressure, and high risk of heart disease. Under-eating will cause malnutriention, thin, and various deficiency disease will occur. The more serious problem is the anorexia which is a mental health, which don’t want to eat, always thinks that they’re too fat. The food pyramid has the top of fat, salts and sweets, then diary product, vegetable and fruit,, grain and cereals at the bottom.

Monday, 22 December 2008

Note on The rainforests

*The tabled layered structure will not be shown here. Pls download the doc. file. Rainforests are dense vegetation covers in the hot and wet regions. There are certain characteristics of being a rainforests: 1) Many species -- over half of world’s species. 2) Layered structure 3) Equatorial climate, the temperature is high (25C or above), small temperature range (1~5C), averagely and large rainfall (2000mm) which means no dry season. Because of this reason, rainforest is found along the equator and within the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The 3 biggest rainforest in the world is Amazon Basin in Brazil (1/3 of rainforest in the world), Congo Basin in Africa, and in Malaysia. It’s hot and wet climate favours the continuous growth of plants all year (evergreen) and various species of trees, insects and birds there. However, the rainforests are disappearing which called deforestation due to some reason. 1) Commercial logging -- Some tree are valuable to be logged. Those timber can be used for furniture and construction which have a large demand of wood. Modern machines used now increase the rate of deforestation. 2) Shifting cultivation -- the natives cut down the trees and burn to clear the area for farming which is called slash-and-burn cultivation. During their farming, they won’t irrigation and add fertilizer. Then after some time the fertility dropped. They will abandon the land and find a new plot. The abandoned land will be used after some time. The period is not enough for it to restore and allows trees to grow again. 3) Cattle ranching -- The land are also suitable for cattle ranching. Some American companies open extensive rainforest area as grassland for beef cattle. 4) Plantation agriculture -- The climate in rainforest are also favourable for planting cash crop which the product is valuable. 5) Population pressure -- the society development keeps on. This will increase the demand on land, transportation. Also, the government is in pressure for making economic growth. One of their way is to develop in rainforest. Thus some land is cleared for other uses. The deforestation affect serious to the local people, livings and us. 1) Deforestation increase the daily range of temperature, wind speed, decrease the humidity in the air and increase the rate of soil erosion. 2) The native people relies on the resources from the rainforests such as food and home. Deforestation will destroy their home, they have to migrate to other places and their culture destroyed. 3) Deforestation destroys the habitats and led to extinction on animals. 4) Leaves stops rainwater fall into the ground directly while the root bind the soil together and absorb water. Without them, soil and nutrients washed away to the river and forms alluvium. Then silting and flooding may occur. 5) Deforestation also decrease the rate of photosynthesis which takes in CO2 and output O2. CO2 is a kind of greenhouse gas that will reflects heat going out the atmosphere. This will amplifies the greenhouse effect and enhance the effect of global warming. Furthermore, flooding(the ice melts and rise of sea level), droughts in inland area(high evaporating rate) and extinction of wildlife occur more frequently. 6) It’ll also cause the loss of timber resources and valuable medicine. It’s hard to solve the problem because different people have different aim and view. 1) The government have to monitor plans for rainforest development and solve the conflicts. 2) Land developers, logging and mining companies only aim at profits, although they can provide jobs and funds, they show a little concern for the environment only. 3) The native people rely on the rainforest a lot so they totally oppose deforestation. 4) Those environmentalists mostly concerning about the rainforest environment so they press the development projects. Friends of the Earth and the World Wide Fund for Nature help building up natural reserves in the rainforests. To solve this problem , sustainable development is needed. 1) Afforestation project can be used for those area seriously affected by deforestation. Tree will be replanted for an extensive piece of area. 2) Selective logging is encouraged. The companies have to obtain a license before they exploit the timber in the rainforest and some tree can’t be cut. 3) Native people are encouraged to plant cover crops on abandoned land. Cover crop can protect the soil from heavy rain and help recovering the fertility of soil. 4) Eco-tourism is a kind of tourism that to respect and protect the nature and ecosystem. Some area is designed as protected areas, set up national parks or natural reserves in the rainforests where deforestation is not allowed there. We can also do something for the rainforest such as don’t but product made from endangered species, better use the rainforest products, support eco-tourisms and environmental organizations such as World Wide Fund of Nature, Green Power and the Friends of the Earth.

The periodic table and metals on Earth

*Note that the table about group I, II and VII will not appear here. Please check the doc. . It is avaiable now in the Chemistry, "introductino to metals..." one.* Thanks. ------------- 1) Atomic no.(Z) = no. of protons while Mass no.(A) = no. of protons+ neutrons. In some other ways of expression, Mass no. = no. of electrons+ neutrons, no. of neutrons = Mass no.- Atomic no. The notation: AZX. 2) Isotopes -- same elements with different no. of neutrons. In another way, they have the same atomic no. but different mass no. For example the 3 isotopes of hydrogen, 1H(Protium), 2h (Deuterium) and 3H (Tritium) have 0,1 and 2 neutron(s) and 1 proton. 3) Relative abundance of isotope = % of existence of isotope in nature. 4) Those isotopes have similar chemical properties(same elements) but different physical properties (different mass). 5) Relative mass of 12C (by definition), = 12 while relative mass (roughly) = mass no. It’s also called relative isotopic mass. 6) Relative atomic mass = SUM of (isotopic mass of isotopes*relative abundance) and it’s the weighted average of isotopic mass of its natural isotopes on 12C scale. 7) The electrons fill the shells from the innermost shell. Nth shell can mostly hold 2n2 electrons. Unless one shell has been full, the electrons will keep filling in except potassium and calcium has only 8 electrons on the 3rd shell. 8) Electronic configuration -- (x1,x2,x3,x4…) represent xn electrons on the nth shell. 9) In the periodic table, Group no. = no. of electrons of the outermost shell and period no. = no. of occupied electron shells. There are 8 group (I, II…. VII and group 0) while the other elements which don’t belong to any group is called the transition metals. 10) Group 0/8 -- noble(inert) gases, fully filled outermost shell(octet structure)-- unreactive. The Octet rule-- elements with 8 outermost electrons is stable. 11) Group VII reacts with most metals to form salt so it’s also called salt-formers. The metals in Earth’s crust and ore mining 1) 24% of Earth’s crust are metals(by mass). The most abundant metal is Al while the most abundant elements are O(48%) and Si(28%). 2) The metals found in natural are usually metal ores in form of compounds. There are 3 common types of compound -- Metal oxide (M+O), sulphide (M+S) and carbonate (M+C+O). They can be extracted with carbon reduction. 3) Carbon reduction -- Metal oxide+ C →(heat)→ Metal + CO2. This is useful for PbO and CuO but useless for FeO unless the heating is hot enough (>1300C) 4) Gold and silver can be found in elements because it’s unreactive. The other metal ores include Haemetite --iron oxides; Bauxite -- Aluminium oxides; Galena -- Lead sulphides, Chalcopyrite -- Copper sulphides and iron sulphides and calcite for calcium carbonate. 5) There was ore mining industry in Hong Kong in the past. For example, galena in Tai Mo Shan and Haemetite in Ma On Shan. However, the ores weren’t pure enough (and, Hong Kong aren’t suitable for ore mining industry, from past to now). Thus they were closed now. 6) China is one of the most important source of ore mining. Quarter of the iron is being output from China. 7) There are two method for extracting the metals. The first one is physical method -- crush the rocks (with pure metal mixed with other matter) to small pieces and wash away the rocks. Gold is one of the metal that can be extracted by this gold panning method. The chemical method is carbon reduction. 8) Chemical change means there’s new matter forms while physical change will not produce anything new. Note that change of state is physical change.

Monday, 15 December 2008


今日上中史堂果陣…… 林sir依舊鏗鏘有力咁係白板到寫狂草…… 成堂都好似以前聽過咁,多得暑假掃落的幾本近代中國史 呢個has drawn my attention 「……(光緒)個皇后都係慈禧幫佢揀,佢其實鍾意一個貴妃,叫珍妃…… 佢個下場好慘……俾慈禧拋左落井」 shock左 同Zenky果篇<<八千女鬼>>一模一樣囉 有興趣自己睇 Zenky自稱此文得到當年高3文學-小說首獎 值得一睇~! ******* 3A今日個Chinese oral勁crazzzzy 個topic係「"快"子比叉文明」 結果變左我同朱敬延1對1,隔離2位only附和 3對1某實有好有唔好 你應得唔好咪俾人拗死囉 (e.g. Fatmon) 應得好,從善如流者,可以見一個殺一個見2個殺一雙,多野講者,point 多咪高分囉 真係唔明……我話"快"子有槓桿原理係到又會麻煩?!?又會駁到你「俾我dead air」左?!? 唔好賴得就賴喎~ 講完,Ms Yu俾左個似是而非的CM,話文明應該講乜…… 其實,單講文明就大把野講啦!不過都好,我似乎有16.17分 用多左"例如",不過出左幾秒dead air 大概呢條topic太難吧 隔離班有幾悠topic,例如有「膠袋稅」咁 都係historical, logical同political的題目岩我多D~ 好怕明天的Eng Oral 唔好話俾我知要test 啊!! **其實係冇晒靈感寫文先上來打blog, 打xanga……**

Thursday, 11 December 2008

The power problems in China

* The alternative power resources and transportating coal and oil which are in table form will not appear here. Please refer to the doc. version. You can download it near the bottom of this page. The energy problem in China 1) Coal and oil are main energy sources of China but the they’re not evenly distributed. 2) Coal -- N, NE, NW part of China, Oil -- NE and NW part of China. 3) Industry consumes most energy in China but those industrial zone aren’t matched with the coalfield and oilfield → energy shortage in some industrial zone of Chine (South China). 4) The total power consumption is increasing faster than total power production because of the rapid improvement of industrial industry, living standard and quality. 5) Coal and oil are non-renewable resources and reserves are decreasing by exploitation. 6) There are three problem by burning Coal and oil. Air pollution -- SO2, CO2, NO and ash. They reduce visibility and rise health risk. Acid rain -- Burning poor quality of coal(↑S) may emit SO2 and NO which cause acid rain. 7) Global warming -- Burning those fuels may emit lots of CO2 which is a type of greenhouse gas and the rising concentration of CO2 enhance the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere and led to global warming. 8) West-East gas transmission project pipes gas from Tarim Pendi(Xinjiang) to Shanghai and lower course in Chang Jiang. 9) We can also set up new industrial zone to match those distribution but we need to consider the power, labour supply, transportation, market and raw material supply, etc.

Monday, 8 December 2008

The Second World War

The Second World War - “Great War” Causes 1) Treaty of Versailles pleased no one──Harsh terms on Germany and fail for territorial gains of Italy(Italy fought for Britain and France for that promise) . 2) Great Depression──The economic environment that time was that USA sell good to Europe and lends money to Germany; Germany use it to return money that on the Treaty of Versailles back to Europe. Crash of Wall Street stock market causes the downturn of USA’s economy which came with an domino effect and cause global depression (1929-1933). Base on the downturn of countries, they have no time to look after other’s action and helps the rise of totalitarianism in Germany and Italy. 3) Totalitarianism is that a dictator or political party rules the state with absolute power. Fascism(Italy) ── Postwar Italy had ↑unemployment rate, inflation and taxation. The government is unable to improve life so people looks for a new leader ── Benito Mussolini in Fascist Party (1921). On the next year he got power and call himself Il Duce(the leader). He was unable to improve effectively so that he decided to fight. Nazism in Germany ──The case of Germany was similar to Italy but he was successful to improve the economy by develop infrastructure. Through the book “Mein Kampf”, he was the hope of Germans and he got power in 1933. On the next year he became the führer/ fuehrer (The leader). He also want to revenge. Those expansionist policies led to outbreak of WWII. 4) Aggression of the Axis Powers Japan──Korea, NE and coastal China, SE Asia, Italy──Abyssinia and Ethiopia Germany──Rhineland, NE Europe and Eastern Russia. 5) Appeasement policy of Britain and France means that to give the demands of Axis powers preventing war→Axis power become stronger, stopped in 1939. Anti-Jewish policy Nazis believed in racial theory which Jewish are only ‘subhuman’. Nuremberg Laws passed in 1935 - boycott Jewish shop and no marriage between Germans and Jews. Crystal night in 1938 broke down all glass of Jewish shop. 1942, “final solution to Jewish problem” ── concentration camps/death camps(such as Auschwitz). They were put in poison gas room. 6 million Jews were killed ── the genocide of the Jews.──Nuremburg trial. How the war was fought Germany invaded Poland marked the start, 1939. Attack Pearl Harbor , Hawaii which is naval base of USA. USA declare war on Germany then, 1941-1942. Italy surrendered, 1943. 6th June 1944, invaded Normandy. May 1945, Germany surrendered. Two atomic bomb on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki), 2nd Sept, 1945, Japan Surrendered. Impact 1) Casualties ── 55 millions people killed + 6 million Jews from genocide. Cities & towns destroyed → hard lifetime postwar and huge economic losses. 2) The use of atomic bomb marked the beginning of age of nuclear weapons. 3) End of League of Nations and the start of United Nations. 4) European empires(such as Britain and France) were heavily damaged → the fall of Europeans supremacy and US, USSR rose as superpowers. 5) As the empires fell, decolonization in Asia and Africa started in 1960s. 6) After WWII, US and USSR lost the common enemy (Germany) and gradually they became 2 bloc (capitalist & communist) → start of cold war.

Sunday, 7 December 2008


2)Long passage 特高
4)普通school day 低
唔通我個blog 真係冇乜fd會睇?!?

Saturday, 6 December 2008

The causes of WWII

1) Treaty of Versailles pleased no one──Harsh terms on Germany and fail for territorial gains of Italy(Italy fought for Britain and France for that promise) . 2) Great Depression──The economic environment that time was that USA sell good to Europe and lends money to Germany; Germany use it to return money that on the Treaty of Versailles back to Europe. Crash of Wall Street stock market causes the downturn of USA’s economy which came with an domino effect and cause global depression (1929-1933). Base on the downturn of countries, they have no time to look after other’s action and helps the rise of totalitarianism in Germany and Italy. 3) Totalitarianism is that a dictator or political party rules the state with absolute power. Fascism(Italy) ── Postwar Italy had ↑unemployment rate, inflation and taxation. The government is unable to improve life so people looks for a new leader ── Benito Mussolini in Fascist Party (1921). On the next year he got power and call himself Il Duce(the leader). He was unable to improve effectively so that he decided to fight. Nazism in Germany ──The case of Germany was similar to Italy but he was successful to improve the economy by develop infrastructure. Through the book “Mein Kampf”, he was the hope of Germans and he got power in 1933. On the next year he became the führer/ fuehrer (The leader). He also want to revenge. Those expansionist policy led to outbreak of WWII. 4) Aggression of the Axis Powers Japan──Korea, NE and coastal China, SE Asia, Italy──Abyssinia and Ethiopia Germany──Rhineland, NE Europe and Eastern Russia. 5) Appeasement policy of Britain and France means that to give the demands of Axis powers preventing war→Axis power become stronger, stopped in 1939.

Friday, 5 December 2008

About the note on WWI

對於圖示顏色的弄錯導至大家的不便,僅此道歉,doc版本亦已更正,請注意字體為Arial 10. ------------ We are sorry for mistake on the colourings on those relationship on the picture. It has been corrected now and download version is also corrected. Please note that the font is Arial while the size is 10. This font will appear in all notes here. Thanks, notes team

Thursday, 4 December 2008


動筆啦…… 竟然連楔子都2000字! 要加油呀~ 不過俾人串話成日爛尾……其實對於一個beginner好正常…… 諗下其實Carol都係。(笑) 參考左好多唔同sector ge書 Improbable ge賭局同principle 天使街的活潑 陣地書系的詭計 小說村2位人兄的結構 Seba的毒嘴(麒:笑) 仲有facebook俾左我practice Texas hold'em的平台=] 真係唔易玩…… *struggle* 持A Q 外面係 A 8 5 J 2 上手落720,我有50,All in? Well... 呢D唔好提啦 好難玩 F.3的Probability明顯地唔夠皮apply on my calculation expected value 比較好用 ---------------------------------------------- World War beta會? 佢2.5%/ half hour, D人一日賺3倍,屈機 ---------------------------------------------- 15-12-2008 不宜考試! 唔好考啦 \(_ _)/ 中英數都... ----------------------------------------------

Thursday, 27 November 2008


Causes 1)貢丸教得悶 2)譚智安未做完功課 Place: 3B classroom Outbreak 貢丸多次叫佢收埋,佢只係收左本maths書,講左聲吾好意思,但本簿仲擺係度。 How the war was fought? 貢丸下稱貢,譚同學下稱譚: 貢:你將本簿拎出黎拉,我要收左佢。 譚:.............你等陣(係櫃桶搵份學生會報訊黎敷衍貢丸`) 貢:吾係呢份..........呢位同學你囉本簿出黎做咩? 譚:(笑)我練字囉~ 貢:我要收左你本簿! 譚:我用本簿墊住張紙寫野姐 貢:你點解墊住張紙要打開本簿? 譚:張紙太大,要打開本簿。 貢:果張紙實係用黎遮住本簿。 譚:我真係墊野架! 貢:總之呢位同學你吾好講甘多,被本簿我! 譚:你知吾知我叫咩名?= =' 貢:你叫咩名根本同件事冇關(尷尬)(忘記了吧?算拉我地都慣~) 譚:你吾知我叫咩名又點知我咩性格呀? 貢:(火起~搶簿)你點解吾比我! 譚:(捉住本簿吾放)我點解要比你? (兩人各扯住簿的兩端,死都吾放!) 貢:你整親我只手,我可以告你! 譚:你都整親我只手,仲有我本簿~ 貢:你本咩簿? 譚:一本對我好重要既簿! 貢:(火滾~將簿搶走後轉身走,返去之後掀開sitting plan認真甘睇佢個名-v-)放學後黎見我! 譚:(小聲)tiu,癡線~ Impacts 1)Heavy casualties and sereve destructions-本簿差D爛左,雙方隻手似乎傷左 2)貢丸聲望插水

Tuesday, 25 November 2008

The First World War (WWI)

Causes 1) After the industrial revolution, the European countries needs more raw materials and larger market → conflicts on territorial expansion 2) On Late 19th century onwards they start arm themselves → arms race, naval race between Germany and Britain on dreadnoughts which were the best battleships that time. 3) Extreme Nationalism (EN)- protect/support the (other) country with the same type of people . Germany - Austria-Hungary - Pan-Germanism and Russia - Serbia - Pan-Slavism. 4) Alliance system (AS)- France was defeated in Franco-Prussian War in 1870 to Germany and loss Alsace and Lorraine (industrial area), they hate Germany. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed Triple Alliance on 1882 and France, Britain and Russia afraid them and formed Triple Enterte 25 years later (1907). They have been divided into 2 rivals. Outbreak 28th June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his wife was assassinated by a Serb when they visited Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina which are land of Austria-Hungary but Serb as a main population there. Russia support Serbia (EN) while Germany (EN) and France(AS) support Austria-Hungary and they joined the war. 3rd Aug. 1914, Germany attacks France, they walks through Belgium so that Britain declare war on Germany (protect Belgium). Feb. 1917, Germany start to attack all merchants ship towards Britain and USA suffers lost. USA declare war on Germany then. 1918, Germany attacks Paris again but lost, the military attacks Germany and she surrendered on Nov. 1918 in Paris called the Paris Peace Conference, Germany is forced to sign Treaty of Versailles. This made her felt humiliates and wanted revenge → cause of WWII. Results Treaty of Versailles 1) Germany is solely responsible for the war. 2) Lose all colonies. 3) Banned military(less then 100000 solders), no up-to-date weapons and can’t produce armaments. 4) Pay the cost of war. European empire collapses and new nations - Russia → U.S.S.R.(Soviet Union, Communist); Germany and Turkey becomes republics, Austria-Hungary becomes two country (Austria & Hungary). New country formed - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Develop new weapons -tank, canon, submarines, air ship and poison gas. Heavy casualties and sereve destructions - 8 million solders killed. Rising state of Women-more independent, earn their own salaries and in charge of the household finances.
Formations of League of Nations in Geneva in 1920 to settle international disputes in the future and to prevent outbreak of another world war.


篇幅較長,請在筆記欄下載。 <--- no longer working... :(

Sunday, 23 November 2008

F.3 I.S. Chemistry - Introduction to Metals and atomic structure

Chemistry – Metals and basic atomic structure 1) Metals are a categories of common used materials. 2) There’re 9 common properties of metals: Shiny, good conductors of electricity and heat, malleability(pressed into sheets), ductility(pulled into wires), strong(hard), high melting point and boiling point and high density. 3) There are exceptions for those properties, e.g. graphite(a form of carbon) is hard, shiny, good conductors electricity and high melting point; sodium is soft, low-melting and light. 4) Choosing the suitable metals usually refers to the strength, electrical conductivity, resistance to corrode in are, appearance and cost. For example, Gold is used for making jewellery because it’s high cost, shiny surface and resists corrosion. Treated aluminium is used for making window frames because aluminium oxide resists corrosion. 5) The history of usage on metals- Copper age (5k-3.5kBC), Bronze (mixture of copper and tin) age (3.5-1.5kBC) and Iron age (using iron and steel and sometimes other materials; shape-memory alloys and use of superconductivity; 1.5kBC afterwards) 6) Elements are thing that can’t be split up into anything simpler, e.g. carbon. They can be further classified into metals and non-metals (and metalloid). 7) Compound contains two or more compound through chemical reaction, e.g., burns carbon forms carbon dioxide. They may have independent properties from the original elements, e.g., H and O are flammable but H2O is water. 8) Mixture contains two or more elements or compounds, they are only mixed. 9) There’re 109 elements up to now which 92 is found in nature and the others were made by scientists. There’re 11 gases, 2 liquid(bromine and mercury) and the others are solids in room temperature and pressure. The 11 gases are H, N, O, F, Cl and 6 noble gases. 10) Comparing the metals and non-metals, the metals are usually silvery white (except gold and copper) and non-metals are usually dull and variously coloured. Sonorous-a sound produced when you hit it) for metals and other metals properties. 11) Metalloids have some properties from metals and non-metals and they are commonly used in industry. For example, silicon is a semi-conductor in transistors and silicon chips. 12) Atom is the basic constituent particle of an elements and the smallest, basic particle of an elements with diameters about 10-8cm and masses of 10-23g. An elements of substances is only made up of one kind of atoms. 13) The chemical symbols for elements are also the atomic symbols for their atoms. For example, C represents element carbon or carbon atom. 14) Atoms are made up of three fundamental particles as protons(1+), neutrons(0) and electrons(1-) as known as sub-atomic particles. In the centre of atoms is a tiny and dense region as nucleus where proton and neutron is and they stick tightly together with the about same mass. 15) In a normal atom there should be no charge because no. of protons = no. of electrons. Protons and neutrons have relative mass of 1; proton and electron have relative charge of +1 and -1. 16) Electrons occupied most place outside of nucleus and inside the atom.

Tuesday, 18 November 2008

無題 XD

填海填到密,皇后冇碼頭。 墮入稅網中,一交三十年。 阿扁去貪污,淑珍坐輪椅。 開荒南丫島,守拙歸屯門。 豪宅十餘幢,工人八九個。 立法會冇用,政府係無能。 長長回歸日,遠遠普選路。 狗吠共產黨,雞鳴唔做事。 屋企無塵雜,打機有余閑。 久在香港裡,復得返自然。

EPA notes- F.3 unit 3,4

The role of government in Hong Kong’s economy 1) Previous capitalist system and way of life for 50 years; protect private property rights and previous economic policies including free trade policy, freedom of capital movement, low tax policy and free port policy. 1) Clear vision of direction of economic development. 1) Minimize the intervention of government to the market. 2) Business-friendly environment-principle of equality before law, respects the independent of the judiciary, salary tax and corporate profits tax lowest among the world→labour works and attracts foreign investment. 3) Provide infrastructure for market to run more efficiency Transport - good transportation, e.g., Highway and road Industrial sector for developing hi-tech industry, e.g. Cyberport and Science Park. Commercial sector-platform to sell, e.g. Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (HKCEC) Tourism - attracts more tourism, e.g., Hong Kong Disneyland 4) The government also encourage private enterprise to provide some infrastructure (to lower the expenditure of gov. in order to hold low tax) , e.g., electricity, gas, LPG (energy sector), construction and separation of container termination (transport), telecommunication services. 5) Education and training forms knowledge-based economy-pro-knowledge, tech. and skills needed to rise productivity. 12 years free and universal education for child for school-going age; expand higher education for pro-workers; vocational training for skilled workers; retraining courses to upgrade workers’ skill; assist and encourage containing education with educating fund; Import foreign talents to rise Hong Kong’s competitive power 6) Supporting Authority - Hong Kong Monetary Authority keeps HKD stable (by linking with USD through foreign exchange fund) and supervise operation of banking industry. 7) The Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong(SFC) monitor operation of stock exchange market/financial investment and commodity exchange market. 8) Office of Telecommunications Authority monitor telecommunications services, encourage competition and protect consumer interests. The problems of Hong Kong industries(manufacturing) : It’s belonging to secondary production and it is declining after the Civil war. There’s 3 internal reason and 3 external reason. Internal: I) The high production cost. It including all the cost that during the production, mainly is rent and wages. The high land prices and salary rises the production cost and rises the selling prices. That causes the lower competition power comparing to countries which have lower production cost. II) Low technology sector would also lower the competitive power. This may lower the quality and some technology industry. Although the government is developing technology sector, this is only a long term training. Hong Kong is lack of talents, resources and experience. III) Lack of land is also a problem. Basing on the lacking of land, we can’t develop heavy industries(occupies large land and capital). We even can’t do reclamations because of the environmental protection. External: I) There are lots of foreign competitors. Taiwan, Singapore and S. Korea has higher technology and mainland, Malaysia maintains lower production cost. II) In other countries, by protecting their local industries, tariffs (import tax) and import quota is set by other countries. Hong Kong even can’t take revenge because Hong Kong is lack of different kind of resources. Taking those measures may only suffer ourselves. III) Countries which have partner relationship to Hong Kong is not too much. So that Hong Kong’s industries is easily affected by outside’s economic situation. Solution I) Move production process to mainland→reduce production cost. II) Diversify products and markets →reduce reliance on European and US market, explore new market such as Russia. III) Improve investing environment-provide cheap land and low-interest loans to manufacturers→reduce effect from trade restriction. IV) Develop and support high-tech industries as Ch.3. V) Establish institutions for industrial development- Trade and Industry Department: 1)Handle trade policies, agreements and international trade relation. 2)provide services for manufacturing industries and S/M enterprises. HK science and Tech. Parks Corporation-1)cultivate new tech. companies by giving training program 2)provide land/facilities for manu. and high-tech. industries. Hong Kong Productivity Council-helping with value- added product by providing pro. services. Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation: export insurance for local exporters against non-payment risk due to commercial and political event. Hong Kong Trade and development Council-Conduct trading connection through the world and hold exhibition and publications to promote local products.

EPA notes- unit 1, 2 (2nd edition)

The structure in Hong Kong economy Economy includes the production firms(supply), exchange(trade; buy and sell) and consumption. There are three types of production: primary production, secondary production and tertiary production. 1) Primary production means that the production that getting resources from nature and output raw materials. For example, mining is getting coal or metals from nature. 2) Secondary production changes from raw material(s) to finished product or semi-finished product. Semi-finished product will further be in more process under tertiary production. For example, the production of paper from wood is a kind of secondary production. 3) Tertiary production is the process from semi-finished product to finished product. For example, teaching by using book, etc. is a kind of tertiary production. 4) The rising of production cost (rental cost, salary and prices of raw materials, etc.) leading to the declining of secondary production and not enough natural resources for primary production so that tertiary production is important in Hong Kong. People worked in secondary production are changing to tertiary production. Primary production requires hard work but unstable income. They are willing to sell their land and uses the money to change the living style. 5) Inter-relationship between the three types of production: Tertiary production provides services to both primary and secondary production; secondary production provides tool (fertilizer and machine) to primary production and semi-finished product to tertiary production; primary production provides raw material to both secondary (wheat) and tertiary production (oil). The main feature of Hong Kong economy The main features are private property rights and free market economic system. 1) Private property rights refer to the right to use, right to transfer (sell) and right to derive income. 2) The advantage of those rights is that people will best use their resources to earn money, thus stimulate people’s incentive to work and business people’s incentive to invest and promote economic development. 3) In order to maintain those rights, the government set laws to protect them and the government even can’t confiscate people’s property at will, compensation is needed. if the confiscation is legal according to the law. 4) The free market economic system refers to the price mechanism-people take part in buying and selling based on private property rights. 5) They can freely negotiate prices. 6) The system was set by market but not the government and it’s based on the well define of private property rights. 7) Prices and quantities of a commodity adjust automatically according to the market supply and demand.8) Hong Kong is one of the freest economies in the world and people can freely engage in buying, selling, investment as well as choosing their jobs.

Saturday, 15 November 2008


結果:25:18(腰斬) 戰略:消極;雙方沒用炸彈 遊戲成分(共100分):運氣60;技巧28;策略10;大意2 開局(紅色大框範圍):一個正常的開局,我方先手開藍色格,對手開斜角的一著頗有風險,幸好範圍不夠大,到開到綠色3和附近的大數字後進入中盤。 插曲.不尋常的分佈(藍色大框):對手開到5,揭到後呈S形向上開。我方開到藍色5,對方一口氣取下4個後撞中了一堆地雷,值得一提的是,他的原意是沿地雷線開,避免對於開啟大量地雷後的一般機率急降時開到空格。後來我方開了綠色空格,對方開到了紫色5,我方毫無困難取下了5粒(7粒中下方2粒很早開到)。 中盤(紫色大框):一如對手所料,不尋常分佈後會出現大量空格,在被動性策略正常發揮下擴大了少許優勢,以13:23進入了終局。 我方開到了一大片空格,對方雖然取得5粒已沒法追回,如圖所支的最後2步用的是消減法,即沿地雷線將特定範圍的可能拔去,屬消極的打法。雖然在開一大片空格後一般機率比初始值還高,但要提防密集分佈是的比數轉變,因此消減法是正確的做法。 在邊局中雙方可說是運氣主宰,在終局之前實在沒有太多的技巧運用,甚至炸了左上角已經有可怕的11個了。

Friday, 14 November 2008

More on MSN踩地雷

4)斜角地雷 例七: 口X 1 A口口 口1 1--1-2口 A位不應開,因為如果A右上有地雷,會白送對手一個地雷,正解是直接開A右上。 例八:(右邊界) 1--2 2 2 X X 3 X A X口口 不應開A位,因為如果A=4,A下方地雷白送對手,正解是直接開A下。 5)重疊機率的混淆 例九: 口2 B 1 A 2 A和B的機會相若,因為用機率相乘估算,A機會為1-(6/7*2/3*5/7)=29/49;B機會為1-(2/3*5/7)=11/21,但1附近地雷會影響機率,正確機會為:1-(1/7*3/4*3/5+1/7*4/5*1/2+1/7*3/4*4/5+4/7*1/2*3/5)=78/140,相差不到2% 例十: 口2 A口 1 B 3口 口口口口 不要以為B附近多數字機會較高,A的機會為1,B的機會是1-(1/2*2/3*3/4) =3/4。正解是先點A後點B。 6)Endplay的處理 往往終局(任何一方到20分)處理是很重要的。首先評估無提示機率(剩下未知空格/地雷數),決定採取消極(開已知沒有;被動性;斜角地雷;落後時或稀少時適合)、中性(博亂中;亂開;領先/多地雷時用)或是進取(被動性;炸彈;拋磚引玉)的策略。 炸彈在終局時有個重要的作用是對於必取分數的處理。例如比數為23:25時,在稠密區域投彈可以反勝,又或者在1/2機會直接拿下,讓對手構成心理壓力。 被動性的流程是對手開數字→拿地雷→消極點法,好處是對消極/穩守對手進行消耗戰,但失去了博中的機會,而且要留意奇偶性及可能格數,因此這個戰略對稍為積極的對手沒作用,而且斜角地雷是唯一對手的漏洞,如果對方留意到這點,消耗戰就要靠奇偶性/3餘數來決定了。這些會在以後再詳述。

Thursday, 13 November 2008


"It is white."「 是 白 色 的 。 」 2001 年 7 月 訪 英 , 有 小 孩 問 白 宮 是 怎 樣 的 , 他 如 此 回 答 "There's an old poster out West that said, 'Wanted, dead or alive.'"「 我 要 正 義 。 在 西 部 有 一 張 舊 海 報 說 : 『 通 緝 , 不 論 死 活 。 』 」 2001 年 911 襲 擊 後 , 他 以 牛 仔 語 調 , 豪 言 緝 拿 拉 登 "I think war is a dangerous place."「 我 認 為 戰 爭 是 危 險 的 地 方 。 」 2003 年 5 月 談 及 伊 拉 克 戰 爭 , 他 說 了 這 麼 一 句 廢 話 "Bring'em on."「 放 馬 過 來 。 」 2003 年 7 月 3 日 向 伊 拉 克 攻 擊 美 軍 的 武 裝 分 子 展 示 膽 識 "I'm honored to shake the hand of a brave Iraqi citizen who had his hand cut off by Saddam Hussein."「 我 很 榮 幸 和 一 個 勇 敢 伊 拉 克 公 民 握 手 , 他 的 手 被 侯 賽 因 斬 掉 。 」 2004 年 5 月 談 見 過 被 斬 手 的 伊 拉 克 人 的 感 受 "You know, one of the hardest parts of my job is to connect Iraq to the war on terror."「 你 知 道 , 我 最 艱 巨 的 工 作 是 把 伊 拉 克 跟 反 恐 戰 拉 上 關 係 。 」 2006 年 9 月 談 伊 拉 克 和 反 恐 戰 時 說 漏 了 嘴

Monday, 10 November 2008

Calculator program that will be useful in Mathematics lesson

Factorization (100 bytes) Factorizing Ax^2+Bx+C and find it’s solution. Mem clear: ?→A: ?→B: ?→C: B2 - 4AC→C: . 5( A-1(√C - B→X◢ . 5( A-1(- √C - B→Y◢ Lbl 0: 1M+: XM: Fix 0: Rnd: Norm 1: XM - Ans => Goto 0: A÷M→A: MM-◢ - XAns◢ Y→X: D=0→D => Goto 0: A e.g. factorize 2x^2+8x+6. Select program 2 EXE 8 EXE 6 EXE (show -1, 1st root) EXE (show -3 3rd root) EXE (show 1, coeff. of x in the first factor) EXE (show 1, constant term), EXE (1) EXE (3) EXE 2 (constant factor) So that 2x^2+8x+6 = 2(x+1)(x+3) Simplification of square roots (47 bytes) MM-: ?→A: ?→C: AC→A: Sci 5: Lbl 0: 1M+: √AM-1→ B: Rnd: B - Ans => Goto 0: Norm 1: B┘C◢ M e.g. simplify sqrt(8/27) select program, input, 8, 27, show 2/9 and 6 so that sqrt(8/27)=(2/9)sqrt(6) e.g.2, sqrt(18), input 18, 1 show 3 and 2. sqrt(18)=3sqrt(2). e.g.3 sqrt(0.75), input 0.75, 1 show 0.5 and 3, sqrt(0.75)=0.5sqrt(3) Another program for simplification of square root (64 bytes) ?→A: ?→D: AD→A: 1: Fix 0: Lbl 0: Rnd: √A Ans-1 - . 5: Rnd: Ans→B: A ÷ B2→C: Rnd: C - Ans => C + . 5 => Goto 0: Norm 1: B┘D◢ C It is much faster when the sqrt no. is very big. Simplification of nth roots (77 bytes) ?→D: ?→A: ?→X: AX^(D - 1→A: 1: Fix 0: Lbl 0: Rnd: D x√ ( A ÷Ans ) - . 5: Rnd: Ans→B: A ÷ B^D→C: Rnd: C - Ans => C + . 5 => Goto 0: Norm 1: B┘X◢ C Input nth root, and the fraction, output (no. outside) and (no. inside the root) Decimal to square root Mem clear: Ans→D: Ans2→A: Ans→B: 1→C: Fix 0: Lbl 0: A: Rnd: Ans→X: A - X => Ans-1→A: YX + C→X: Y→C: X→Y: BY: Sci 9: Rnd: Ans→X: Fix 0: Rnd: X - Ans => Goto 0: XY →X: 1: Lbl 1: Rnd: √X Ans-1 - . 5: Rnd: Ans→M: X ÷ M2→C: Rnd: C - Ans => C + . 5 => Goto 1: Norm 1: M┘(D√Y2 ÷ √D2◢ C First input Ans then press program e.g. tan30. Press tan30 EXE P1, show 1/3, 3. tan 30 = 1/3 sqrt(3) Recurring decimal to fraction (29 bytes) ?→A: ?→B: ?→C: ?→M: B┘(10xA - 1M+: M┘10xC Input (no. of place of non- recurring part), (value of non- recurring part), (no. of place of recurring part) and (value of recurring part). e.g. 0.23333…, input 1, 2, 1, 3 get 7/30. No. base (2-16) to decimal system (BASE) Mem clear: Hex: ?→D: ?→A: 10→B: 1→Y: D => A→B => 10→A => Dec: ?→C: Lbl 0: Dec: C÷B→X: Y(C - BX M+: AY→Y: X→C => Goto 0: D => Hex: M e.g. 15 under base 7 to decimal, input 0 (means that (2-16) to decimal), 7, 15, get 12. e.g. 29 under decimal to base 15, input 1 (means that decimal to (2-16)), 15, 29, get 1E.

Note on structure and main feature of Hong Kong Economy (unit 1.2)

The structure in Hong Kong economy Economy includes the production firms(supply), exchange(trade; buy and sell) and consumption. There are three types of production: primary production, secondary production and tertiary production. 1) Primary production means that the production that getting resources from nature and output raw materials. For example, mining is getting coal or metals from nature. 2) Secondary production changes from raw material(s) to finished product or semi-finished product. Semi-finished product will further be in more process under tertiary production. For example, the production of paper from wood is a kind of secondary production. 3) Tertiary production is the process from semi-finished product to finished product. For example, teaching by using book, etc. is a kind of tertiary production. 4) The rising of production cost (rental cost, salary and prices of raw materials, etc.) leading to the declining of secondary production and not enough natural resources for primary production so that tertiary production is important in Hong Kong. People worked in secondary production are changing to tertiary production. Primary production requires hard work but unstable income. They are willing to sell their land and uses the money to change the living style. 5) Inter-relationship between the three types of production: Tertiary production provides services to both primary and secondary production; secondary production provides tool (fertilizer and machine) to primary production and semi-finished product to tertiary production; primary production provides raw material to both secondary (wheat) and tertiary production (oil). The main feature of Hong Kong economy The main features are private property rights and free market economic system. Private property rights refer to the right to use, right to transfer (sell) and right to derive income. The advantage of those rights is that people will best use their resources to earn money, thus stimulate people’s incentive to work and business people’s incentive to invest and promote economic development. In order to maintain those rights, the government set laws to protect them and the government even can’t confiscate people’s property at will, compensation is needed. if the confiscation is legal according to the law. The free market economic system refers to the price mechanism-people take part in buying and selling based on private property rights, they can freely negotiate prices and prices and quantities against according to market supply and demand. The system was set by market but not the government and it’s based on the well define of private property rights. *If there are mistakes plz told me and thx a lot for helps and reading !


最近玩MSN踩地雷好易輸,發現幾點拎出來討論。 1)非地雷的數字忽略 例一: 1口1口口口 口X口A1口 1口1口1 X A為空格。空格往往會開出大片提示,8.9分足以扭轉形勢。 例二: 口x口 A 3口 x 5 x x x口 x口x 4 2口 A是「3」。大量的地雷很容易搞錯。 2)誤用炸彈 例三:(左上角) 口口口口口口 口1口5 X口 炸此處極不明智,因為在「5」為中心附近放炸彈有很大機會開到大片空格。 例四:(左上角) 口口口口口口 口5 X口2口 炸X下方是適合的,因為保證了6個地雷且開到空格的機會頗低。 例五:(落後7:13) 口口口 1 A口口 口3口口B 6口 口口口口3口口 口口2口口4口 口口口口口2口 不適合立即用炸彈。因為A,B之有一個可能有地雷,因此「6」中的5個已確定,應該在開了5個地雷後找地方炸。應該炸第3行第3個,保證了5個地雷。 3)奇偶性忽略 例六:右下角 A B C口口 1-1-1--1—1 機會為3分1(A/B/C),先手有2/3機會,應該先試。

Monday, 27 October 2008

比較新宋和回明 (4)

總結 其實兩本小說所述大同小異,以軍事及天朝理念改革為主。只是新宋所述的官場、戰事較多,敘述軸心不外乎朝庭,學院和儒士所聚之地。明顯地,宋代沒有明顯的宦禍,最大問題來自文人意氣之爭。既然手段並不骯髒,歷史天才石越要應對也不太大問題。 到於回明,手段不可免之餘,描述跟新宋相反,以軍事為主。因為是時韃子強攻,主角軍官出身,這是不可避免的。作者亦巧花心思用近半篇幅描述家裡狀祝,可以表達出他本來對兩年大限的珍惜。 整體上,新宋比較「歷史」一些,而回明較為輕鬆。雖然兩本均為數百萬字,但絕對是精彩的歷史架空小說。 *新宋不使轉載 新宋: 簡體頁面,內容繁體。 第一部.十字.鮮鮮出版書局有售 回明: (全文完,共2436字) 下篇關於<<機率遊戲>>個書評

Sunday, 26 October 2008

比較新宋和回明 (3)

-選段隨筆 →回明 大部分都是卷5-8的內容,整個故事比較貼歷史的一段。 「……可是,皇上那裡好說,難的是如何讓百官點頭呀。那些朝中大臣對他們不瞭解的大海看得可有可無,把天朝上國的面子看得比什麼都重要,輕海洋、輕通商,後世人人都明白的道理,以此時文武百官的觀念和意識又有幾人能夠理解、能夠接受? 很多事都是做起來並不難,難就難在沒有人想得起去做。即便有人想得起,墨守成規的人也會使盡手段的不許你去做。而在他的心目中,還認為自己是在堅持正義,是在做為國為民的好事。……」 海禁主要有四個原因:黨爭,內外掌海軍權不能解決。內庭掌權使文官砌出天朝政策。古書弊病,認為商賈未道。最後是壟斷問題。 的確,黨爭永遠是一個政治問題。唐、宋、明如此盛世也因為黨爭而衰亡。所以兩部小說的安排,都需要是外有文官支持,內有宦官幫手的領導人做主角,如此一來,改革不會起(大規模)黨爭,不會像王安石那樣,內在手段也不會被彈劾。 「……正德擦了一把淚痕,從桌上拴起那張奏折,慘笑道:「封還?這次是內閣三公、六部九卿、文武百官逼宮來了,你要朕怎麼辦?」   門外劉謹等人早就悄悄候在那兒,聽到此處終於相信楊凌說滿朝文武試圖將他們全部斬首的話是真地,自己受那些管事太監地吹捧確是中了東廠的奸計了。」 明代給人的感覺往往是官場嚴厲,但書中所述正德感覺上好像未成熟的新宋趙項。 「……李東陽垂下眼來,吸了口氣沉聲道:「皇上,東廠遠在千里之外,如何事先得知王尚書會宴請楊凌?如何會知道雙方會在席上交惡?此事太過蹊蹺,其中細節疑處甚多,可否宣楊大人上殿一詢?」   正德皇上劍眉一皺,俊美地臉蛋上溢出一絲憤怒,高聲道:「疑處甚多?錦衣衛張繡為何在天津衛設伏?東廠為何派出兩萬多名番子在來京道路上四處攔截?他們再三阻止楊卿回京分明是心中有鬼,唯恐惡行敗露!」   他砰地一拍桌子,怒道:「楊卿現在還在回京路上,朕剛剛已下詔令劉瑾率神機營官兵前往接應。若是楊卿有所閃失,朕定要那班奴才償命!」……」 中史論明代宦禍都是廠衛集一人之手,但也有弘治朝的王岳那些頗好的廠督,要不是正德立內廠,他應該不會狗急跳牆參一手去除所謂八虎和楊凌了。 to be continued...

Thursday, 23 October 2008

比較新宋和回明 (2)

回明的時期剛逢倭國(日本)哀落,對明依賴之甚,達明之銅幣。明拒絕貿易、知識往來導致了海盜群起,新組內(行)廠兼收稅,以發展商貿為糖衣,情報網為殺著,對於對外的貿易自不需要憂慮,大陸上卻把驛站完善化,提高商業水平。 明顯地,對於一個廿一世紀來說,一個二級(製造業)、三級(服務業)生產佔總值極大多數的社會來說,自然希望把社會商業化。最重要的是,商業化能推動工業發展。原本的歷史上,自宋元後,科技幾乎停滯不前,回明商業化固然可以將歷史改過來,但我認為新宋科進步受益更多。 明顯地,在一個充滿文化氣息的朝代、一個高自由的時代,他們發展的速度更快。一個例子就是關於石越著論語正解、三代之治、算術初步幾天內被搶購一空,後又被翻為遼文,足見文化之高。他們勇於去創新,例如石越同知軍器監製震天雷,呂惠卿管同樣能做手雷。 主角背景- 寫一部歷史架空小說,主角的背景、資歷是很重要的。就好像一個教授回去古代還可以當教授,乞丐回去就只能當回乞丐了。新宋中的石越設定為讀歷史系的天才(?),基本上整個熙寧時期的事都清清楚楚,例如蝗災及旱災,都成為了立功、官威的工具。 這兩本書有個共通地方就是他們試圖用官場去改變歷史,所以能掌握到的史事、哲理是很重要的。宋代倒不怕文人失言,因為宋朝風俗開放,文官把皇上駁到無言也不是重罪(甚至不是罪)。但明朝興文字獄,只要稍有失言,不被諫官扳倒已屬萬幸,對於這項,回明作者巧妙的安排給他一個太子侍讀的位置,得到太子的信任,內在宦官亦存威信,確立了日後幾個危險但舉足輕重的進言,扭轉歷史。 @copyright... To bo continue

Wednesday, 22 October 2008

比較新宋和回明 (1)

比較新宋和回明 歷史背景- 他們的背景是宋和明就不用多說了,只是他們選的背景都有一個重要的共通點──都是中興時期。 新宋所描述的是北宋王安石變法時期,當中宋代才子雲集,趙項變法不成,北宋也就走向哀落了。在截稿之前(?),本人就第一部「十字」而言,石越成功地革新、推動變法,雖然強幹弱枝之勢未改,王韶在熙河地區打到勝仗也不代表甚麼,但整個宋代已在第二部中顯出中興。 回明是明代弘治中興後期到正德,中興-亂政-宦禍是明代的轉折點,從現代回去的楊凌到這個時期就是要承中興、滅宦禍才能興明。書中楊凌成為太子侍讀,因而壓制原來正德時期「八虎」,即劉瑾、馬永成、谷大用、魏彬、張永、丘聚、高鳳、羅祥等八位過去的東宮宦官相互勾結,扶持正德繼續弘治時期的德政。 動作- 兩本小說竟出奇地有同一個新政,就是通商。讀過中史的人會知道,宋朝開設口岸,為甚麼說是新政呢?那是因為(北)宋設五市舶司,功用類似現在海關,主要是招待、管理來船,而不是對外貿易。基於天朝政策,明清兩朝使用閉關政策,實施海禁,更頓失貿易。 中國一向有「一官二吏三僧四道五醫六工七匠八娼九儒十丐」之說,即重農民,興讀(死)書,但從商者不入流,視之「賤民」也。明朝更有讀書人可穿青錦衣而商人不可之說。 先說新宋,對外貿易首要是「特產」,石越能利用學院授「雜學」而造就宋代科技水平三級跳,火藥得到很好利用;「座鐘」(即時鐘)的發明都是一些很好的例子。更重要的是,金屬、鹽以外的奢侈品價錢之高,影響之大可扭轉北宋窮的局勢。如書所說,一趟可賺六、七十萬貫,即宋一年稅收大半了,一年還不只一趟呢。 @Copyright reserved~ To bo continue...

Saturday, 18 October 2008


勝率從66.3提高到71.4了(%) 714W 85D 201L in 1000 game 統計: Highest Combo(W): 93 Highest Combo(W+L):132 Lose Chain: 9 BlackJack (自己):25 BlackJack (對手):16 Insurance (真):11W 5L Insurance (假):3W 10L 賭注統計: (限一次最少1 unit賭注.限每局都要下注,一開始100units) 最高賭注:10 最低賭注:1 最高連賺:391 units 最高連蝕:92 units 最高賭倍下注:20units *2 最高Split下注:20 units *2 最高BlackJack下注:35 units 最後現金:1176 units

Wednesday, 8 October 2008

勁!牧童笛 beethoven virus


Seba系 1.幻影都城1~7 8.禁咒師4,7 10.舒祈的檔案夾 11.歿世錄1~2 13.上邪1~3 16.Seba年度同人誌 鮮鮮系 17.新宋1~4 21.靈俠異少1~7重睇 35.白龍的秘寶(上下) 歷史系 36.回明1~6 42.歷代政治得失 43.下一個十年 科幻系 44.時間迴旋 45.時間軸 46.時間旅人 47.第19層地獄 48.群(上下),海 51.最終理論(小說) 52.最終理論(物理史) 53.日巡者.終巡者 科學系 54.薛丁格的兔 55.量子重力 56.觀念化學1~6 57.靈魂有多重 其他 58.天使街3,5 已完成 日巡者.終巡者 天使街4 最終理論^2 岩岩好60本~e年一定要係書局將佢地KO晒!!

Saturday, 4 October 2008

Beethoven virus- mario print

Beethoven Virus


鍾意左玩osu! 有好多玩家識中文架 相當於應援團不過難好多(最難) 可以去 youtube search下 Wizards in winter osu! 一日之內排名升左1000 (#5092->#4120) 有幾首幾好ge -Super Mario -Karo Karo Kanon (太鼓果首) -Satima 2000 (琦玉2000) -Speed over Beothoven -Beethoven Vrius -DevaJu (The world ends with you) -Staff credits Speed over Beethoven 好正呀 歌詞 (Beethoven~)x6 (Into the night, you'll make me cry I need your love, to save my life I need you while my piano gently weeps Listen to Beethoven A melody, will set you free You need my love, deep in your mind I need you while my piano gently weeps Music gonna save your li-i-ife )*2 (beethoven~~)*5

Friday, 3 October 2008

RSI not in stocks 的時候

係HKCOC睇過"風迷士氣指數"後,又試下自己用RSI整個"謎"的指數 e.g.升跌= 心情(+20~-5)+升跌猜測(+20 or -20)+HSI收時升跌/100 期間5升到38 最高73 期間都係60-80徘徊 0.0 RSI. relative strenght index 參見 大家不妨試下 p.s. (+20~-5) 考慮佢會持續升而設的

Wednesday, 1 October 2008

EPA summary Sept.

*憑記憶打的.感謝某人編過, 9月EPA 唔教得好多...1課多少少啦 Unit 1 係 Structure Unit 2 係 Feature Hong Kong Economic structure and basic feature Production is process that turning input to output. e.g. producing food is that cook the raw food to be a dish. -Three types of production: Primary production(industry), Secondary production, tertiary production. Primary production is extracting directly from nature to get raw materials. Natural resources→Raw materials Primary production in Hong Kong: The work of primary production is hard and the income is unstable, so that the people are willing to sold their land to developer(farming industry) to get money and find work on tertiary production. Since Hong Kong turning from fishing village to free port, it has been declined. Secondary production is turning raw materials to semi-finished product(as input of tertiary production) or finished product. e.g. factory that makes pencil is secondary production (wood+ lead→pencil) Secondary production in Hong Kong: The production cost (salary, rent, raw material price, etc.) is higher than mainland, so that the factories owner chose to move the factory to mainland to lower the production cost, therefore the selling price can be lower and the competitive power will be higher. Therefore, the secondary production in Hong Kong is declining. Tertiary production is turning semi-finished product to finished product. They always be the provision of service e.g. Transportation is using car to earn money. Banking service. Tertiary production in Hong Kong: As Hong Kong is a international financial centre, the financial service and transportation service is very important for Hong Kong so that the tertiary production in Hong Kong is developing. Inter-relationship among the three types of production: Primary production supplies raw material for secondary production to work and tertiary production needs some raw material for their production (e.g. oil for transportation). Secondary production supplies tools or products to primary production and supplies semi-finished product to tertiary production. Tertiary production provides services. The private property rights refer to a set of rights: Right to use is that the owner can use it and refuse other to use it. e.g. You can use your phone and decide weather you borrow it to your friend. Right to transfer is that the owner can sell it. e.g. You can sell your collection to others. Right to derive income is that the owner can use it to earn money. (NOT earn money by selling it) e.g. Using the taxi to earn money. This right can let people make best use of their property to invest money. Imagine in the communist society, everybody are having the same amount of property, they won’t do their best to earn money because what they earn aren’t theirs. The government set laws to protect the people’s property and the government can’t get away people’s property even legally by the law but still needs compensation.

Sunday, 28 September 2008

介紹一種受青少年歡迎的消閑活動 Version 1.0

如果要說一種受青少年歡迎的消閑活動,那就非寫網誌莫屬了。打從二十一世紀起,資訊科技的發達使得電腦代替了不少以前日常生活的指定動作,例如公司的文檔資料運算,都離不開電腦。近年,寫網誌代替日記成為了一個潮流趨勢,背後的原因不但是電腦的大眾化,更重要的是網絡的傳播效應。 網誌之所以能代替日記,是因為互聯網突破了三維地域的介限,做到「足不出戶能知天下」,對於新一代,相比以前勞動更少的青少年是給了個方便。更重要的是網誌在私隱上比日誌更有保障,在現今講求各種權利的社會,這是一個重要的因素。以前的時候,你要寫日記就只能用手一筆一劃的寫出來,隨著時間飛逝,日記本會發黃,產生霉爛,將以前蒼勁有力、文詞飛舞的紀錄化成脆弱的老人;更可能在不知何時何地假手過人,讓你的「事蹟」傳開去。網誌則不會發生如此事情,現在的保安科技能夠指定閱讀者,以及監視閱讀者的舉動,無論對內外向的人都是適用的。 寫網誌,並不會是一種耗時間的活動。現代的青少年看重未來出路,讀書、升學壓力大,更不是以前嘻嘻哈哈渡過童年時代老一輩的人可以相比的。面對巨大的讀書壓力,心靈脆弱的人也許會選擇跳樓;走上歪路的人會吸毒、蹺課,而然大部分人都選擇了去做一些有益身心的活動來散心,有人做運動,也有人寫網誌。跟以前不同的是,以前經常會跟知己、鄰居混在一起整天的情景,現在根本不可能。要發洩或是分享自己的心聲,也大概只有寫網誌這種方法了。 網誌,並不局限於文字。以前日記只能用文字和幾幅簡陋的圖畫去描述,那些珍貴的回憶也許深深地銘印在你的腦海裡,但時間會讓你的記憶、你的紀錄蒙塵,那些栩栩如生的一幕幕情景也不逼真。但現在我們可以用相機拍下來成為你的網誌的一部分,連聲音檔、短片也可以融入當中,逼真的效果是網誌成為潮流的一個重要的因素。相信不少人還會記得「巴士呀叔」事件,當事坐在旁邊的青年就是為那個拗不過「巴士呀叔」的人打抱不平而放上網,因而聲名大噪。 此外網誌的渲染效果高,成為一些名人的工具,也帶動了一群追星者去寫網誌。例如零八年美國總統大選民主黨參選人奧巴馬,利用facebook成功吸引了一群青少年的「鐵票」和經費來源,使得他的「吸錢」能力無論相比前第一夫人希拉莉和共和黨的麥凱恩都遠勝對手。又例如「巴士呀叔」,在他貼上短片之前不到一個星期,一傳十、十傳百,不但成為報章頭條,他本人更被逼出來道歉,可見網誌的渲染力。 當然,網誌也有其壞處。在這個世界互通的網路,單是繁體中文語系的電腦用戶就要以千萬計,要看網誌、回應是做不完的。有人因此沉迷於電腦,甚至發展出了「宅」族。但是我認為寫網誌還是可以增進寫作能力,懂得控制時間的話,用寫網誌、回應別人的網誌作為溝通橋樑,依然是個值得受觀迎的消閑活動。

Tuesday, 16 September 2008


搞個爛GAG Accumulator ,累購期權,俗稱I kill you later也 係e d熊仔橫行ge時候,Acuumulator 好似將你D錢凌遲處決咁,生不如死 但係雷曼兄弟們安信(安信兄弟丫嘛)上身,唔係幫你斬卡數,係幫你斬立決是也! 股票變廢紙,一刀殺下去俾你飄上極樂 XDDD (打飛) 一波未平一波起~ 次按外匯房利美; 過份借貸出問題~ 雷曼大行都要死!

Monday, 15 September 2008

Problems on Factorization

Level1: Factorize the following (OR expand then factorize.) (2x-y)^2-(x+2y)^2 81a^4-256 (x-4)^2-18x Level2: Factorize the following. (OR expand then factorize) (a^2)(1+2b)+(b^2)(1+2a)+ab(2+ab) (a^2)(b+c)+(b^2)(a+c)+(c^2)(a+b)+2abc x^2+4x+xy+3y+3 (that seems easy.) Level X(?) List all pair (ax+b)(cx+d)=12x^2+ex+35(-1)^f that a-f is integer. Prove or disprove exist pair (a,c) that ax^2+bx+c can be factorize as (ex+/-f)(gx+/-h) While changing b. and a-g are a)Integers? b)Reals? c)Complex number?

Saturday, 13 September 2008

末日機器的議題~ 賀第200文

歐洲核研究組織(CERN)的大型強子對撞器(Large Hadron Collider , LHC ),將於本港時間明午3時30分動,展開史上最複雜也最激的科學實驗,就是模擬宇宙大爆炸。英國物理學家霍金(Stephen Hawking)指,這次實驗將物理學「新黃金時代」,開物質和宇宙秘密寶庫。但有科學家質疑,LHC其實是部「末日機器」,實驗可能產生微型黑洞,令末日來臨。 ↑↑↑↑↑↑↑ 大家對以上實驗有任何意見嗎,以下是一些論點 0.0 正方(贊成):(第一輪) -產生異變機會微,黑洞會很快蒸發(理論) -異變可算為實驗一部分 反方(第一輪) -沒有人可以知道會黑洞會變得多大(反理論) -不太建議做這種滿危險的實驗(怕) -不要盲目相信科學家 -任何人也不應奪取其他人的生命(宗教) 正方(第二輪) -就算出現世界末日, 那也沒什麼好怕(一齊死) -敢於不斷冒險,才使人類建立如此文明 -起出來就用,不要浪費(隨遇而安) -不要盲目地對任何自己所不清楚的東西恐懼 -LHC建立之前一定是經過相當周延的計畫 -道德觀念是人類創造出來的,所以我們才會依從這個想法行事→假設大家到最後是會被假設黑洞吞掉的, 由於事後人類已經滅亡, 道德觀念已不在存在 -如果真有喪心病狂的科學怪才想要作類似實驗有可能會讓媒體傳出去嗎? -道德先在於人存在,未日不存在道德 -不能奪取他人生命,也是斷章取義,科學家是做實驗,不是去謀殺。 紅色字=科學上論點 藍色字=道德/哲學上論點 綠色字=心理上論點 啡色字=其他論點 大家有其他意見也來發表啊XD

Thursday, 11 September 2008

About harmonic series.

*JSL* Harmonic series is a special sequence that touch infinitive but very slow. There's so many ways to prove it. Let harmonic series be S and it x th partial sum if S(s). S=1+1/2+... =1 + (1/2) + (1/3+1/4) +(1/5+1/6+1/7+1/8)...←→S(1)+(S(2)-S(1))+(S(4)-S(2))...+(S(2^p)-S(s^(p-1))... >1+1/2+1/2+1/2....... => infinite. *JSL+* The let of harmoninc series's notation is still exist. S=(1+1/3+1/5...)+(1/2+1/4+1/6...) =(1+1/3+1/5...)+0.5S >(1/2+1/4+1/6...)+0.5S+0.5 =S+0.5 S>S+0.5 only exist when S is infinite. *SSL* The sum of prime^-1 is also infinite. Prove. Notation: P is the sum and P(x) is partial sum. S is the sum of harmonic series. ln S = Sum of (Prime)ln 1/(1-p^-1)= sum of (prime) -(ln (1-p^-1)) ln S = infinite

Monday, 8 September 2008

About online's exp.

Let it be a continous function (continues in my online game -,-") f(x), time used to up lv, unit: hr/lv f'(x), time accel. : hr/lv^2 t(x), exp per time(hr), exp/hr t'(x), exp per time accel., exp/hr^2 exp([x])=exp to up lv *t(x) and f(x) are continue becoz exp per (something) fall even in lv but not fall just on the lv. exp(x)=f(x)t(x). exp'(x)=[f(x)t(x)]'=f'(x)t(x)+f(x)t'(x) so that we can count the time needed. Let's have an example: (forget about unit, m=million time *) (p.s., Δx is a small variable, about 1000~10000, too small so not to count here) Sub., x=81, (81lv) f(81)=28 f'(81)=0.785 t(81)=0.8m t'(81)=-0.01m+Δx exp(81)=28*0.8m=22.4m exp'(81)=[(0.785)(0.8)+(28)(0.01)]m=0.908the formula for diff. game is different so that we prefer you to get your own formula, in this game, we have Exp(x)=(x/2-0.7)x^3=x^4/2 – 0.7x^3 Notice that Exp(x)’s two definition won’t get the same answers becoz they only is a approx. value.So that the time needed (function) to up lv totally→Exp(81) =21.1m (3 sig.fig.) Time = Exp/speed = 21.1/Intergrate[1.61-0.01x dx] =22.4 / (1.61x-0.005x^2) sub x=81~82 = [1.61(82) -0.005(82)^2]- [1.61(81)-0.005(81)^2]=0.795 22.4/0.795 is about 28.17Comparing to the original time, In fact only about 10 minute is needed more than expect but still important XD The increasing rate might much more than that... This is the way of 外掛 to calculate time needed to up lv... Of course, t’(x) may not as a ‘stright line’. Then the new T will not be x+t’/2. But in this case, easily, we found that new time =ft/(x+t’/2) So easy comparing to a long calculating at the first……..---- the data is come from a famous online game in Taiwan =]~

Tuesday, 8 July 2008


靈警科會考卷™ 滿分:二百 時限:三小時 甲部、閱讀理解 (四十分) 閱讀以下文章,回答問題。 資料一 當日下午,靈情司醫檢處   “嗯,十九號。”法醫拿起手術刀,剖開了十九號的肚子,在割出一個大型的“Y”字型傷後,又拿起電鋸,將前胸的肋骨切下。   血肉濺在本和法醫的面罩和外套上,在這片血肉模糊中,本注意到十九號的臉動了一下。   “等等!”本叫住了法醫。   “什麼?”法醫已經把肋骨卸下來了,他將一小排肋骨放在一邊,露出十九號的五髒六腑,和普通人的一樣,沒有看出什麼問題。   “剛剛他的臉在動。”本道。   “幻覺吧?”法醫不相信死掉的人臉還會動,哪怕是有靈能的人,死了就是死了,不管是誰,死了靈魂都會離開肉體,剩下的就只有這具空殼,空殼是不可能動的,這是誰也改變不了的事實。   本也不太確定,所以他沒有堅持,他見法醫把十九號血淋淋的胃取出來,道:   “這人吃了米倫斯,你看下他的胃部。”   “正要做呢。”法醫把胃放在盤中,像切牛排一樣,用手術刀將它切開,裡面的胃液、沒有消化的食物都溢了出來,“啊,”法醫從膿液裡拿起一枚結婚戒指,“他還真是不挑食。”   “你看,裡面還有骨頭的碎片,”本指著一塊白骨,道,“即使是野獸,也不可能將生骨頭咬碎!”   “我們看看這家伙的牙齒長什麼樣。”法醫同意本的話。   法醫又拿起手術刀,准備切開十九號的嘴部,取出他的牙齒,可就在他的手術刀要碰到他的皮肉時,他的臉又動了一下,好像有什麼東西在他的皮膚下游走,這次不只是本,連法醫也看得真切,他抬眼看了看本,道:   “看到了?”   “剛才就看到了。”本更加確定了。   “我要開動了。”法醫咽了咽口水,自他擔任法醫以來,不管在人間界還是在靈情司,都沒有遇到過這種事。   法醫從十九號的眉心上劃了道口子,順著他的眉心往下劃開,將他的臉剝成兩半,但就在他的刀剛剛劃過十九號的鼻尖,一個黑影倏然從十九號的頭部砰出,飛向法醫。   “啊——!”法醫從來沒遇到過這種事,他清楚地看到有一只半只足球大小的紫色的蟲緊緊地趴在他的面罩上面,透過玻璃面罩,法醫還能看到它細小的腳和上下起伏的小腹。   “冰凍術!”本也吃驚不小,他急中生智,將那只紫色的蟲連同法醫的玻璃面罩一同冰凍起來。   “天哪,這是什麼啊!!”法醫將面罩摘下來,看著被凍在冰塊中,動彈不得的紫蟲,若不是有面罩擋住,後果不堪設想。   “似乎是蠱蟲,”本記得“群”中有人會蠱術,“我拿去異檢處。” 資料二   靈司殿三殿辦公室   現在這間辦公室已經易主,阿成站在窗前,望向遠方的內城,心裡有說不出的憂慮。   “阿成!”本突然闖進辦公室。   “本,你怎麼來了?”阿成有些吃驚本會親自過來,除了每年他回總部向紹佐當面報告美洲分部的情況外,其余的時間都不曾來過。   “怎麼出了這麼大的事也沒人通知我?”本有些生氣。   “抱歉,我也是剛剛才接到紹佐免職、靈情司單設為地情殿的通知,現在心裡很亂,還沒來得及通知其他分部的四殿。”阿成長長嘆了口氣,“本,情況越來越不妙了。”   “我來就是為這事,你先說說你這邊。”本越發覺得自己親自來一趟是正確的。   “紹佐、阿續、皇晟、星翎連同靈龍闖進了冥司殿。”   “什麼?!”本當然知道這是非常嚴重的事,“為什麼靈龍也在?他不是在人間界好好地生活嗎?紹雲呢?”   “據紹佐說,‘群’對他們一家下手,紹雲受了重傷,他們的孩子也被擄了去,他們此番就是為了去救回靈魂,沒想到卻被‘群’引到了冥司殿,不過他們已經找到‘群’的大本營,已經離開冥司殿前往鬼堡了。”阿成道。   “那十老知不知道靈龍的身份?”   “現在知道了,所謂的御獄島一事根本就是借口,他們對紹佐瞞報塞雷亞尚在人間界,並娶了紹雲的事勃然大怒,並且要求紹佐殺了靈龍和他的孩子。”阿成皺眉。   “也就是說,紹佐肯定與十老絕裂了?”本當然清楚以紹佐的性格,要他賣友求榮,是絕對不可能的。   “據我所知,紹佐也有離開地府的打算,所以……”   “可是為什麼十老會知道靈龍的身份,已經十二年了,一向深居簡出的他們為何突然發覺此事?知道這事的人都沒可能告密的啊!”本提出質疑。   “這才是關鍵所在,我和鬼仙都認為地府有‘群’的人,而且職位不低。”   “的確,”本聽了阿成的話更加認定美洲分部的靈警資料泄密的問題出在總部,“從兩天前起,我美洲分部先後有五名靈警遭遇不測,最後發現是克勞勃研究院所為,他們選定的都是在人間界有家人的靈警,先用卑鄙的手段綁架他們的家人,再將他們引到暗處……” 1. 請寫出法醫所屬部門。(2) 2. 請寫出十九號發瘋和蠱蟲的關係。(12) 3. “群”中最可能使用蠱蟲的是誰?(2) 4. 十老動怒的原因?(9) 5. 地府中‘群’的人,請列出兩個人。(4) 6. 靈情司單設為地情殿的效果?(116) 乙部、長問答 (一百六十分) 請用完整句子作答。 1a. 試比較兩次往生道戰鬥和險墜往生道的情形。(18+18) 1b. 解釋宇文翎下世打為畜生的原因。(14) 1c. 詳述往生道的架構。(20) 2. 分別用地府、人界及隱靈寺方丈之角度描述三界。(10+10+10) 3. 舉出大小獄各三個並加以說明。(5x6) 4. 說明殘、何遠及離(宇文翎)的關係。(5+5+5) 5. 請出靈龍的死法和復活過程。(15) 丙部、額外分數題目 此部分數計算於總分內,但滿分仍為二百。 此份考卷應用於靈警文試中是否適合,試說你的看法。(30)

Monday, 16 June 2008


1999年歐聯決賽曼聯對拜仁,拜仁整體表現較佳長時間領先更兩番中柱,卻在比賽補時被曼聯以兩個略帶幸運的入球反勝,賽後曼聯球迷在耀武揚威之餘卻把比賽描述成「曼聯比拜仁踢高一皮,壓住拜仁來打」。 碧咸在1998世界杯起後腳踢施蒙尼報復而被逐,英曼咸球迷認為錯在施蒙尼「扮野」;朗尼在2006世界杯踩人要害被逐,英曼咸球迷認為錯在C朗拿度「向球證打小報告」,視為仇敵。然而當C朗拿度在新球季為曼聯入球後,這些英曼咸球迷就即時變臉,將仇恨拋到九霄雲外。 在2006世界盃其間,GAForum曾有利物浦球迷因聲稱「英格蘭只要重用謝拉特,而不需要有碧咸,便能使英格蘭好佳績」而受到一眾英曼咸球迷圍攻,其支持的球會利物浦也受到英曼咸迷以極難看的字語抨擊。 2007年11月,英格蘭在2008歐洲國家杯外圍賽主場輸給克羅地亞無法出線決賽週,uwants有英曼咸球迷指責在比賽中完勝英格蘭的克羅地亞「打假波」;聲言要求歐洲足協調查並將克羅地亞逐出決賽週,由英格蘭取代。 2007-08球季曼城對曼聯賽前,新聞報導指艾歷臣對C朗缺陣感到同情,有曼聯球迷指艾歷臣是貓哭老鼠。(來自 曼聯球迷多次批評前阿仙奴前鋒亨利的快射罰球是不道德,但在2007年歐洲聯賽冠軍杯中,傑斯以同樣方式取得入球卻受到曼聯球迷的高度評價。 曼聯球員朗尼不論甚麼情況,都經常在比賽上講粗口,隊友李奧費迪南對此表示這樣有打氣的作用。曼聯球迷同意李奧費迪南的說法,並認為這是球賽的一部份,不會對小朋友有不良的影響。 曼聯球員朗尼比賽時每一次都是「腳去先」兼「唔收腳」,曼聯球迷稱這為朗尼的風格,但朗尼被對手以此種「風格」踢傷,曼聯球迷稱對手為「茅柴」。 2006-07球季雷丁球員踢傷車路士門將施治,GAForum有曼聯球迷認為沒有問題,並說這是「很普通的衝撞,沒有甚麼大不了」。 2007年歐洲聯賽冠軍杯對決AC米蘭期間,因曼聯球員不君子行為及曼聯球迷堅持曼聯所為是正確後,引發球迷天地之歐冠區票選最沒品之球隊以大比數當選。 曼聯對熱刺比賽, 熱刺文迪斯完場前離門60碼吊射,卡路爾慌忙撲救時誤將皮球漏入白界數碼再撈出來,然而球證視若無睹,引起非曼聯球迷極大憤慨,質疑奧脫福球場的構造與別不同。 曼聯球迷曾經大力批評車路士以金錢打造球隊是會破壞足球性質,但曼聯在2007-08年度同樣以頗高的金額購入多名球員,曼聯球迷則稱這為「爭兵需要」。 一般球員在比賽時因不君子行為而直接拿到紅牌應該會有英格蘭足總的紀律研訊,但曼聯球員-如06/07球季,值英鎊30M的李奧費迪南用球「省」中一個老婆婆;在07/08球季,去屆英格蘭足球先生C朗拿度因所對手挑釁以作出報復-並沒有受到英格蘭足總的紀律研訊。 曼 聯在2007-08年度首場聯賽中以0:0與雷丁握手言和,曼聯球迷大力批評雷丁,「雷丁901戰術終于卑賤地得逞」、「哎,都吾知雷丁要吾要面嘅。不知 丑」、「雷丁真係好衰仔 .... 龜縮戰術」、「901仲衰過911事件」、「剩係死守,仲要攪到 Ronny 傷埋,1 分已經比多你啦」、 「打龜縮防守...正一縮頭烏龜」等。 李奧費迪南03/04球季因缺席藥檢違反英格蘭足總規定,按例被罰停賽8個月,曼聯威脅要把英格蘭足總 告上法庭,加利利維爾及部份曼聯系英格蘭國腳醞釀罷踢國家隊比賽,然後國際足協主席白禮達警告曼聯將可能被逐出所有比賽。有曼聯球迷宣稱「全世界曼聯球迷 會出來遊行抗議白禮達,到時英女皇要出來講幾句野」、「白禮達一定會俾曼聯d股東告到甩褲」。 有球迷於網上討論區2000FUN批評C朗拿度 插水,曼迷稱插水是技術的一種。面對其他球迷抨擊C朗拿度插水,Uwants有曼聯球迷聲稱這是保護自己的方法,很多偉大球星都是這樣做,並指這是要很高 技巧,抨擊者學不到這種技巧就不要出聲。另外,GAForum亦有曼聯球迷在回應其他球迷引用youtube片斷抨擊時,主觀地並以不尊重的語氣回覆其他 球迷:「我唔覺有插水喎」。 曼聯球迷經常說C朗拿度和前球員雲尼斯達來沒有插水,但常常批評前阿仙奴球員亨利、雷耶斯插水是沒有體育精神。 (C朗拿度插水片段: related&search) 07年聯賽首循環曼聯對車路士,沙夏在完場前以插水動作博得十二碼,有 曼迷認為「冇錯係冇踩到右腳,但唔係插水」、「雖然冇踩到沙夏,但因為對方球員有出腳,比左個錯覺沙夏心裹面比人踩左一下,所以仆到」。(沙夏插水片段 每 當對隊球員因有優異表現而使曼聯落敗,曼聯球迷會要求不惜一切將該球員收歸旗下。成名於2001年歐聯的原拜仁球員夏格維斯由於選擇代表英格蘭出戰國際 賽,火速被部份人視為拜仁「最強」球員,追捧其23號拜仁球衣,甚至有稱「拜仁只有夏格維斯一個人好波」,「拜仁訪港如果無夏格維斯就無叫座力」。夏格維 斯06/07球季初續約拜仁後仍多次高調表示想轉會曼聯,曼聯球迷無視他與拜仁的長期合約,認為拜仁應該讓他以低轉會費投曼聯,並指責拜仁「刁難」。 阿根廷軒斯引用一早與曼聯協定好的解約條款要求轉會利物浦被拒,然後被曼聯出售至皇家馬德里。曼聯球迷抨擊軒斯是「二五仔」。 曼 聯球迷喜歡妙想天開、胡說八道,除了所謂四大球會,每當有球員因傑出表現擊敗曼聯,曼聯球迷總會討論應否將該球員收歸旗下,更將曼聯與英格蘭國家隊混為一 談,如常常談論「傑斯如果當年入英格蘭就好啦」。而前曼聯門將舒米高說其子卡斯帕舒米高不會為英格蘭國家隊效力,有英曼咸球迷說「曼聯都對舒米高不薄,竟 說出這讓人痛心的說話」,故意無視舒米高對祖國丹麥的歸屬感,更忘記了當年舒米高因薪酬低並不獲提高而產生不滿因而離開曼聯的原因。 曼聯球迷 因不滿其他球迷戲稱曼聯和其球迷為曼狗,故憤而將死對頭阿仙奴和其球迷稱為阿狗。曼聯球迷的理據在於阿仙奴踢法極為粗野,其中前前隊長韋拉、前球員伯金、 柏奴亞等踢法甚為茅,每一個動作都像挑釁對手打架一樣,及前隊長亨利甚為樣衰,因此評阿仙奴為阿狗。可是,對於堅尼的踢法,曼聯球迷會稱其為「勇而不 茅」,對前球員雲尼斯達萊侵犯對手的踢法評為有「智慧」或視而不見,朗尼和李奧費迪南等球星的樣貌亦得到中上評價。 香港的體育傳媒由於懶於自 己發掘新聞,喜歡襲用少數英格蘭傳媒的第三四手資料而不作思考過濾,因此往往慣於對曼聯及英格蘭媒體的喉舌式報導照單全收,常以曼聯及英格蘭為本位報導新 聞,繼而妖魔化其他球會及國家隊。例如星島日報於2007年8月30日,以標題「車路士詭計阻曼聯斟貝碧托夫」報導:「據報車路士計畫以胡禮菲臘斯交換熱 刺的迪科爾,雙方仍就球員身價問題討價還價。表面看來,這宗交易對車路士作用不大,但若真的成事,熱刺便只剩下三名前鋒,屆時曼聯欲簽貝碧托夫便難上加 難,車路士這一招可謂以本傷人。曼聯領隊費格遜看了貝碧托夫上周日對曼聯的出色表現,加上鋒綫傷兵問題,故提出以二千二百萬鎊(約三億四千萬港元)簽入貝 碧托夫。然而,車路士中途殺出,希望以胡禮菲臘斯交換熱刺另一前鋒迪科爾,但熱刺希望車路士能再多加四百萬鎊,交易有待日內達成。車路士擁有杜奧巴、比沙 路和舒夫真高三大射手,迪科爾到來對整體實力幫助不大,但熱刺便絕不會放走貝碧托夫,車路士這計畫來為了打擊曼聯居多。」但是,作為一隊要三線發展的球 隊,有四個前鋒是正常之事。而且,車路士鋒將杜奧巴年尾又會離隊一個月,到時就更加需要足夠前鋒。再加上如果單單為了阻止其他球會買前鋒,而犠牲水準穏定 的胡禮菲臘斯,根本毫無意義。這個報導正是香港記者報導曼聯有關消息的手法之典型案例。 曼聯曾在07/08賽季開季時跌至榜尾二,與榜末的打比郡及榜尾三的富咸淪為護級球隊,但曼迷不斷批評對手「太強」,表示開季一向如是,並說曼聯一定能後來居上奪得冠軍,但聯賽積分早已被已連續多場不敗的阿仙奴拋離。 曼聯球員如朗尼被傳媒影得嫖妓,但是曼聯球迷卻說沒有這回事。2007年曼聯到訪澳門期間,亦有多名球員被影到帶著要付服務費的女伴回酒店,曼聯球迷又說「沒有親眼看見就等於無」。 C 朗拿度、拿尼及安達臣被英國傳媒圖文並茂揭露召妓及開雜交性派對的醜聞。香港有曼聯球迷對此的反應是「叫雞有乜問題? 要怪就怪佢地太出名」、「o的呢係男人通病,咪反應咁激喇」、「有邊個球星唔爛滾呀」、「超!罰錢乍嘛! C朗大把錢啦!」、「打死唔信,以C7咁既溝死女外型,以佢依家咁既地位使鬼比錢叫雞咩,咳一聲大把女免費湧埋黎任佢玩個人突破同插花啦,分明係滿面爆瘡 拿尼既主意(叫雞)啦,叫到黎C7梗係順便玩埋一份啦,好心班友啦,一黎到就教壞C7」、「唔應該罰C7,反而要俾C7獎金,C7令隊友更團結,新隊員更 快融入MU」。 根據非正式統計,會戲稱阿仙奴和其球迷稱為阿狗的都是曼聯球迷;會戲稱曼聯和其球迷為曼狗則是來自不同的球會。 C7 於聯賽對富咸一役的一記單刀波,飛到成尺高倒地,好明顯是插水,但有曼迷不忿說:「尼美隻手阻人前進呀,跨欄跨過去跌低左都被人話插水,好慘呀點解會咁 架,唔通要撞去尼美度先得..c朗被針對呀」,「但係無可否認呢球佢係無插水 最多係為左避免受傷」。明確地係插水,但被說成針對及避免傷,曼迷果然料事如神,洞悉先機。曼聯都不乏狠毒的球迷:「我真係想佢唔跳起一野跪q爆尼美個 頭」居心惡毒,全無人性。http: // UWANTS 一名曼迷,於看後"加利仔可能收山”一post及各大會員回覆後,扮演正義角色寫出感想:「"香港怎麼會有這樣可恥的人?」 曼迷居然如此厚面皮。亦有一名曼迷不停用以粗口回敬:「 你XX,唔識睇字咩?我有講過話圍護堅尼事咩,我係話緊圍護d人係到加利仔有機會收山而作出嘲笑依d行為,睇d唔睇d係到扮logic?何來無logic 呢我想問?同埋咩X人XXX呀朋友,你講緊咩X呀?重作啦你XX..係到十下十下~」滿口污言穢語,狗口長不出象牙。

曼狗 (PART II)

英國本土曼聯球迷憎惡的國家隊或球會(德國、意大利、荷蘭、阿根廷等),他們全盤繼承這種憎惡情感,即使在香港他們與這些國家隊或球會根本毫無恩怨可言。 對英格蘭傳媒吹噓的轉會煲水新聞深信不疑。所有被曼聯看上的球員都應轉會曼聯,其原屬球會應低價或免費讓該球員轉會。同樣,任何和英格蘭扯上關係的球員都應選擇代表英格蘭。 曼聯/英格蘭與任何球隊對戰,不必分析雙方實力已可斷言曼聯/英格蘭「必勝」,因為陣中有碧咸(或任何其他球星)。 對 英格蘭傳媒每兩年吹噓一次的「1966年以來最強的英格蘭」神話深信不疑,每逄大賽必將英格蘭捧為大熱,進而鄙夷其他球隊,而當英格蘭敗北則如喪考妣,視 餘下賽事再無欣賞價值。同樣,對曼聯官方媒體、教練或球員「來屆必會重奪歐聯」、「來屆必會贏得三冠王」的宣傳及吹噓亦照單全收,看不起其他參賽球會,包 括成績遠比曼聯彪炳的各國班霸。 曼聯球員犯規侵犯對手而被罰,是對方的錯或球證錯判;對方犯規侵犯曼聯球員,也是對方的錯。曼聯球員插水取得 利益(例如博得十二碼),是技巧高超;對手插水,是欺騙行為。對方球員在自己禁區內與曼聯球員輕微接觸,甚至只要有出腳攔截的動作,都是對方犯規;對方球 員在曼聯禁區被曼聯球員踢到沒有問題,如果對方球員跌倒就是插水。 曼聯在比賽最後關頭反勝其他球隊,是「永不放棄」;其他球隊在比賽最後關頭反勝曼聯,是「符碌」。 英格蘭敗北出局後,拒絕接受失敗及英格蘭技不如人的事實,往往質疑其對手打假波(作弊)。英格蘭屢次在大賽射十二碼敗北,是運氣欠佳;其他球隊射十二碼得勝,是毫不光彩。 對英格蘭傳媒包裝吹噓的「神童」推崇備至, 對其他國家的新秀則不屑一顧。 將碧咸與其他球星比較時,經常指碧咸在每一方面比這些球星皆有過之而無不及,對其他球星優秀之處必予抹煞之或視若無睹,並吹噓碧咸應該當選世界及歐洲足球先生。 認 為碧咸的射罰球技術(慣稱「七旋斬」或「碧咸式罰球」)古往今來世界第一,對其他射罰球好手皆不放在眼內。更把碧咸當年對温布頓的半場吊射及世界杯外圍賽 對希臘的入球神話化,其他球員踢出同類的球則視若無睹。2003年起碧咸接連射十二碼宴客出醜, 認為只是草地問題,甚至有陰謀論指是對手在十二碼點附近做手腳的詭計。 (女球迷常見口吻)我認為這場比賽曼聯會贏, 因為碧咸/C朗靚仔。 反曼高潮及香港極端曼聯球迷惡行舉隅 著名評述員何輝曾在直播節目中批評曼聯表現,其後受言論壓力及擔心其人身安全,而要公開向曼聯球迷道歉。 商台DJ Marco 曾在某節目中批評曼聯,惹來狂熱曼聯球迷有組織地大量去信商台投訴。 商台DJ 梁禮勤2005年1月曾在深宵音樂節目「一切從音樂開始」中的歌曲間場時間反覆評論其愛隊曼聯及英格蘭,而極少報出播放的曲名,令聽眾極為不滿。 有線電視在1999年播出「紅魔鬼的奇妙旅程」等節目吹噓曼聯戰績,又聲言「全季曼聯賽事一場不漏」以討好曼聯球迷,選擇播放球賽時以曼聯優先而犧牲其他戲碼更吸引的比賽,剝奪其他非曼聯球迷收看球賽的選擇。 有 線電視評述員在評述球賽時多次偏袒曼聯球員,其中一名評述員蔡文堅更得到「紅魔堅」的稱號。例如曼聯對利物浦,利物浦球員攻門不入他們會說「好彩」,而曼 聯球員攻門不入他們則會大呼「可惜」。有線電視評述員亦因此受到多次的投訴,唯直至失去英格蘭超級聯賽的轉播權並沒有改進。即使在2006/07球季末, 有線電視最後一季播映英超時,曼聯最後一場比賽對護級球隊韋斯咸,有線派出紅魔堅及韋斯咸忠實球迷馬啟仁(Keyman)評述,由於韋斯咸的迪維斯入球令 韋斯咸領先一球,馬啟仁當然十分高興,但紅魔堅居然「哀求」韋斯咸讓一分出來,令曼聯能以90分奪冠,幸好韋斯咸沒有放水,公平競技,沒有讓曼聯得逞。而 在GAForum的一眾曼迷只好以自慰方式,「見到曼聯捧盃就好高興,已經唔記得左輸波呢回事」。 簡東拿被水晶宮球迷挑釁而起飛腳踢球迷事件,曼聯球迷認為簡東拿是「英雄」。 堅尼在自傳中聲稱自己當年是惡意犯規令曼城夏蘭特斷腳,曼聯球迷認為堅尼是「勇悍」;阿根廷籍的前拉科魯尼亞球員杜舒查令碧咸斷腳,曼聯球迷認為杜舒查是「茅柴」,更因此引致外交風波。 2002 年碧咸斷腳後,蘋果日報隔日A1頭條為「碧咸勇戰斷腳」;其後復出,蘋果日報A1頭條為「碧咸復出鬥瑞典」。報刊介紹英格蘭/曼聯時,動輒以「港人最愛的 英格蘭/曼聯...」起筆,每季亦例必訪問特定的球衣店東主,借其口道出「都是港人至愛的曼聯的球衣銷量最好」,反覆灌輸「曼聯最受歡迎」的印象。 2005 年曼聯訪港友賽香港代表隊,入場觀戰之部份香港曼聯球迷不滿香港代表隊門將范俊業開出球門球動作稍慢而狂噓范俊業,甚至在香港代表隊策動進攻時發出噓聲, 令香港代表隊在香港大球場主場「反主為客」。以本場作代表香港上陣的告別戰、並獲選為本場最有價值球員的歐偉倫在上台領取獎項時亦被曼聯球迷噓。香港代表 隊隊長李偉文批評這些球迷入場竟然對在場上代表自己地區努力比賽的球員報以噓聲。 2008年碧咸隨洛杉磯銀河訪港友賽南華邀請隊。比賽中有英 曼咸球迷批評南華後衛李志豪在防守時不肯把皮球踢出底線輸掉角球,令碧咸無法表演開角球。同樣,亦有人抱怨南華在比賽中犯規太少,令碧咸很少機會主射罰 球。完場後甚至有女球迷在接受電視訪問時表示「銀河讓賽...對南華勝出比賽感到有少少唔開心」。翌日,商台節目「在晴朗的一天出發」的主持指當碧咸主射 自由球時「人牆唔應該跳」,「見到d人牆跳就火都黎」,「入場只睇碧咸一個都值回票價」,更指南華「應該要比人地嬴」。(電視訪問片段 )

曼狗 (PART I)

在1999年曼聯奪得三冠王後,傳媒及曼聯碧咸球迷舖天蓋地吹捧曼聯在該年的成績。然而物極必反,傳媒以類似官方喉舌的方式報導曼聯的新聞,將曼聯本位 化,其他對手則被妖魔化,結果招致其他球迷的不滿。同時,曼聯球迷四處張揚該年的成績,透過不同的渠道攻擊其他被妖魔化的球隊,如以「踢法過份粗野、茅而 無品、賤人」來形容當時主要對手阿仙奴便是一例。 部份狂熱的曼聯支持者巧合地同時狂熱支持英格蘭國家隊及碧咸(原因待考),對其他球隊、球員或球迷皆持輕蔑態度目中無人,唯曼聯、英格蘭及碧咸獨尊,習慣以英曼咸三者為本位思考及判斷。因此這類狂熱球迷往往亦被統稱為「英曼咸奴」。 由 於羊群效應,英曼咸球迷中有部份人將碧咸當作一個明星而不是球星,然而這些人由於對英曼咸以外的足球世界缺乏興趣導致足球知識貧乏得可笑,例如今晚是巴西 對德國,這些人會問:「呢場波有無碧咸?」又例如當碧咸轉投皇家馬德里後,曾有人說:「碧咸會帶領曼聯參加西甲,好厲害呢!」甚至有人將這支九屆歐聯冠 軍、當時旗下已擁有魯爾、卡路士、費高、施丹、朗拿度等巨星的傳統班霸視作爛隊,聲稱碧咸加盟後皇馬才是強隊。 在互網網普及化後,部 份曼聯球迷以「凡是英格蘭、曼聯和碧咸做的都是合情合理,而其他球隊皆是低裝無品」的狂妄態度盤踞各大論壇,不斷挑釁和攻擊其他球隊和球迷,使其他中立球 迷和部份看不過眼的非曼聯球迷開始有反曼聯的行動,以對抗這些狂熱而不理性的球迷。曼狗這個詞彙相信在這個時期出現。 普及化 高 登論壇首宗的賭Jer事件,便是曼聯球迷的傑作。在2003年4月,在皇家馬德里主場曼聯的歐聯賽事前,高登會員和平與愛聲明假若曼聯不能勝出則自切其 Jer,結果曼聯不負眾望,以1:3敗陣,打開了高登魔咒的魔法之門,曼狗這個詞彙亦開始廣泛在這個香港人流最多的論壇流傳。現今經常帶領阿仙奴獲得佳 績,為賭徒帶來兩餐溫飽的高登會員巴貝利,也是曼聯球迷。 近年Uwants據稱是本港最多曼聯球迷聚集之網上論壇,及後在前版主金之刀權力包庇下四出得罪各界球迷,數以百計會員群起反抗不果後將矛頭指向曼聯球迷並將作惡之曼聯球迷冠以曼狗稱號。 英 曼咸香港球迷人數眾多,盤踞香港各大小網上論壇,如GAForum,Uwants、高登等。很多傳媒工作者及藝人經常高調張揚其英曼咸球迷身份(例如李克 勤),潛移默化下令更多人成為英曼咸球迷。當然,在英曼咸球迷大幅滋長時,仍有獨立思考能力而敢於抗拒霸權的非英曼咸球迷亦與日俱增,與之分庭抗禮。 由 於人多勢眾,部份極端曼聯球迷經常向其他對曼聯不以為然的非曼聯球迷持狂躁非理性強烈敵對態度,並往往訴諸網上暴力及恐怖主義,例如以粗言穢語辱罵敵對人 士、圍攻、人身攻擊、洗版、濫開論壇帳戶、到敵對球迷網站搞破壞、放毒、黑客攻擊等等。 本條「曼狗」條目亦曾多次被人惡意刪除,及被人以「令香港曼聯球迷成為全球華人笑柄」等理由要求刪除,以圖掩飾香港部份極端曼迷的惡行。 典型「英曼咸奴」思維 無視一切法規、契約、案例、慣例及道德標準,缺乏常識、理性及禮貌,對任何爭議皆以曼聯/英格蘭為本位作價值判斷及思考,喜歡異想天開及胡說八道,經常與普世價值及足球世界的共識和慣常做法相左,慣於護短,性格狂躁,因此經常向其他中立球迷或評論者開火。 精 神上將自己轉化為近似英國本土的曼聯/英格蘭球迷。當有其他外國國家隊或球會訪港友賽時,會以該隊當中有多少效力曼聯/代表英格蘭的球員為衡量該場比賽是 否有「觀賞價值」。同樣,觀看這些比賽時,對待個別球員的熱情度會按上述標準而有所差異。當觀看曼聯/英格蘭/碧咸訪港與香港代表隊或球會比賽時,會對香 港球隊或球員發出噓聲,甚至對主隊落敗感到欣喜。當碧咸在香港參加比賽時,會批評主隊後防球員不肯輸掉角球或犯規太少,令碧咸無法表演主射角球或罰球。 對電視轉播其他國家的聯賽及杯賽毫無興趣,亦懶於涉獵其他國家的足球新聞及評論。視野狹隘,先入為主對其他聯賽作錯誤的定性,持有偏見而拒絕留意 (例如「沉悶」、「保守」、「入球少」、「重戰術」、「無星味」等),偏執地認為只有英超才有觀賞價值。因此對其他球隊及球員只有膚淺的認識,往往得出曼 聯/英格蘭與其他球隊對戰必勝的武斷看法。 被問及何以鐘愛英格蘭/曼聯而拒絕欣賞其他球隊,往往訴諸「殖民地情意結」、「自細睇英國波大」。

Wednesday, 11 June 2008

背IS note = =

Air and living things total 87 points

1) List the mixture of air, define and state the testing method. (13M)

2) Compare breathed air and unbreathed air. (4M)

3) State fire triangle. (4M)

4) How to test the energy inside food (2M)

5) State how plants make food and the types of food, way to test it. (10M)

6) What can absorb carbon dioxide (2M)

7) State Respiration and breathing. (14M)

8) State process and breathing.(15M)

9) State the balancing of oxygen and carbon dioxide. (4M)

10) State the greenhouse effect. (4M)

11) State THREE air pollutants, where they come from and how can they be harmful. (9M)

12) State THREE things in smoking and their harming effect. (6M)

Electricity 73 points

1) State “electricity source”. (3M)

2) State circuit and two types of them. (5M)

3) State conditions that let the circuit work. (3M)

4) State Ampere, Voltage and Ohm and how to measure it. (13M)

5) Give example for material having high and low resistance. (2M)

6) State short circuit and heating effect. (8M)

7) State Resistor and Rheostat. (3M)

8) Give TWO examples for using Rheostat. (2M)

9) Give NINE symbols for circuit diagram symbol you have learnt. (switch on & off) (9M)

10) Compare parallel and series circuit. (7M)

11) Compare fuse and circuit breaker (10M)

12) State ring circuit (5M)

13) Explain how earthing can prevent electric shock. (3M)

Force 41 points

1) State effects of force (3M)

2) State the instrument to measure force (M)

3) State friction. (8M)

4) State FOUR ways to reduce force. (4M)

5) Give two examples that force is useful or not useful. (4M)

6) State universal gravitation and relation between mass and weight. (8M)

7) State relations between action and reaction. (3M)

8) Which liquid fuel will be used for rocket and why (4M)

9) Give FOUR examples for functions of spacesuit. (4M)

10) How can the spaceship reduce heat when backing from the atmosphere (2M)

Acids and alkalis 78 points

1) State the how acids and alkalis taste. (2M)

2) Give FIVE examples for acids and alkalis commonly use in lab. (5M)

3) State three ways to test thing acidic/ alkaline, test acidity/ alkalinity, briefly explain.(16M)

4) Give TWO examples for acids or alkalis in body (2M)

5) State test for hydrogen. (2M)

6) State corrosive effect against metals and marbles, give examples. (10M)

7) Explain why rain water is usually acidic and when will it be acid rain. (5M)

8) How can we reduce the acidity of acid rain (5M)

9) Explain how acid can preserve food and give example. (2M)

10) Give THREE examples that they used for cleanser and what are used. (6M)

11) State neutralization, give three examples and five use of it. (4+6+10M)

12) State method that dilute them. (3M)

Sensory 49 points

1) State 16 parts (outside, inside and cells) of eye, state them in deatail. (39M)

2) State three reasons for short/long sight, effect of it and how to correct them. (10M)

Total 328 points = =